Supplement 04 Essay

Submitted By lickd247
Words: 5187
Pages: 21

The Cosmic Perspective, 7e (Bennett et al.)
Supplement 4: Building Blocks of the Universe

S4.1 Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Quantum mechanics is
A) a branch of physics that applies on very small scales.
B) the idea that mechanics can be understood only if we first understand quantums.
C) the idea that quantitative methods are needed to understand physics.
D) a branch of physics that deals with the curvature of spacetime.
E) a branch of physics that deals with the properties of gases.
Answer: A

2) The primary purpose of a particle accelerator is to
A) make small particles go very fast.
B) make small particles achieve large accelerations.
C) create particles and study their behavior.
D) produce energy for commercial use.
E) test new ideas about the law of gravity.
Answer: C

3) Which of the following statements best describes the quantum property spin?
A) Spin is a measure of the rotation rate of a subatomic particle.
B) Spin is a measure of the rate at which a particle spins around (orbits) another particle.
C) Spin is a property that applies only to large objects, like baseballs.
D) Spin is not meant to be taken literally but measures the inherent angular momentum of a subatomic particle.
E) Spin is not a fundamental property but rather something that can change randomly at any time.
Answer: D

4) The characteristic that distinguishes fermions from bosons is
A) their mass.
B) their electric charge.
C) their spin.
D) their size.
E) their speed of travel.
Answer: C

5) An up quark (u) has a charge +2/3, and a down quark (d) has a charge of —1/3. Which of the following describes a proton?
A) uuu
B) uud
C) udd
D) ddd
Answer: B
6) An up quark (u) has a charge of +2/3 and a down quark (d) has a charge of —1/3. Which of the following describes a neutron?
A) uuu
B) uud
C) udd
D) ddd
Answer: C

7) Protons and neutrons
A) have exactly the same mass.
B) have exactly the same charge.
C) are composed of the same number of quarks.
D) are fundamental particles.
E) are leptons.
Answer: C

8) Which of the following statements about electrons is not true?
A) Electrons carry a negative charge.
B) In an atom, an electron can have two possible values for its spin, usually called spin up and spin down.
C) Electrons are one of the six known types of lepton.
D) Electrons have about the same mass as protons.
E) Electrons are both particles and waves.
Answer: D

9) Which of the following statements about neutrinos is not true?
A) Neutrinos are neither attracted nor repelled by electrically charged particles.
B) Neutrinos have a mass that is much smaller than the mass of an electron.
C) Neutrinos do not respond to the strong nuclear force.
D) There are three types of neutrinos, and these represent three of the six known types of lepton.
E) Neutrinos do not respond to the force of gravity.
Answer: E

10) The mass of a neutrino is
A) equal to the mass of an electron.
B) equal to the mass of a proton.
C) equal to the mass of a neutron.
D) less than the mass of an electron but its actual value is unknown.
E) zero.
Answer: D

11) The two families of fundamental particles out of which all ordinary matter is made are
A) protons and neutrons.
B) leptons and quarks.
C) electrons and neutrinos.
D) quarks and neutrinos.
E) leptons and photons.
Answer: B
12) What happens when a particle and its corresponding particle of antimatter meet?
A) No one knows, since antimatter is only theoretical and not known to really exist.
B) The particles join together to make an antimatter atom.
C) The particles collide and then bounce back apart.
D) The particle and the antiparticle are annihilated, turning all their mass into energy.
E) They live happily ever after.
Answer: D

13) The four fundamental forces are
A) strong force, weak force, electric force, magnetic force.
B) strong force, weak force, electromagnetic force, gravity.
C) nuclear force, electromagnetic force, gravity, tidal…