Full name: Xingyun Qian
Student number: 140103331
Tutor: Greig Mill
Essay question: Critically evaluate the role of digital marketing in global business. Integrate examples from recent research from journal articles to support your argument.
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Sustainability in the 21ST century: a view of business tourism market
The idea of sustainable tourism may be regarded as a form of sustainable development in global tourism sector, which aiming at continued development without harming the natural and sociocultural environment of destinations, therefore, it may be said that sustainable tourism includes minimizing the negative impacts and maximizing the positive impacts. According to Weaver and Lawton (2010), tourism is tend to be one of the fastest growing sectors in the world and it brings economic, socio-cultural and environmental benefits to many countries, which have prompted increasing needs for greater impacts of sustainability. International tourist arrivals got 880 million in 2009 and it tend to be forecast to increase to 1.6 billion by 2020, tourism is likely to contribute 5% of emission which deteriorate climate change and lead to environmental and social threats for the future, therefore, in order to decreasing its contribution to global problem, it is important to achieve a clear understanding of how tourism could be pursed more sustainably. The aim of this essay is to provide an understanding of the sustainable business literature review (part A) and how to achieve sustainable goals in specific tourism areas (part B). It will examine the approach into three aspects: sustainability and sustainable development, the challenge to business and business ethics and agency theory in part A, and apply the relative academic knowledge of part A to part B, which refer to the real world cases of sustainable environmental strategy in New Zealand, business ethics in hotel industry and conflicts between tour guide and travel agency in China.
Sustainability and sustainable development
The Brundtland Commission’s definition of sustainable development - ‘meeting the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs’ - has been mostly used by now, sustainability is the goal of the process of sustainable development, (Blowfield and Murray, 2011), according to Elkington (1997), the three pillars of sustainable development includes social equity (people), economic (profits) and environmental factors (planet), which is called triple bottom line, which will be discussed more in part 2 in more details. It seems that a sustainable enterprise is tend to consider its activity on the environmental and social impacts as well as maintaining its economic increase, which means a sustainable business are more likely to minimized its harmful impacts on society and environment. In general, business which care more about environmental and social issues seems to be more profitable and more easily to achieve its economic goals than its competitors, for example, Nguyen and Slater (2010) states that, some business have tried to reduce the waste that they generate during their activities, Toyota has reduced almost all of its waste from its US headquarters near Los Angeles, Continental Airlines has spent more than $16 to update its fleet to more fuel-efficient and lower-emissions aircraft, and many other successful business, for example, Toyota and Honda, have changed adversarial buyer-supplier relationship into close partnerships, as a result, their products are much more effective from