• Blocks entry of an organism into the body
– Gloves are most common
• Make sure all first aid kits contain several pairs of vinyl, laytex, or Nitrile gloves
• Protective eyewear, standard surgical masks, and/or respirators may be necessary
• Mouth to barrier (breathing masks) are also recommended PERSONAL PROTECTIVE
• No case of disease transmission to a rescuer as a result of performing unprotected CPR in an infected victim has been documented (only 15 cases of infection reported in last 30 years!) .
However, mouth to barrier devices are still strongly recommended!
• Individuals infected with Hepatitis B
Virus (HBV) or HIV may not show symptoms and may not even know they are infectious.
• All human blood and body fluids should be considered infectious, and precautions should be taken to avoid contact. UNIVERSAL PRECAUTIONS
• The Body Substance Isolation (BSI) technique assumes that all body fluids are a potential risk.
• Follow BSI procedures even when blood and/or body fluids are not visible
• Wear appropriate PPE, such as gloves
• Use absorbent barriers to soak up blood or other infectious materials
• Clean the spill area with an appropriate disinfecting solution, such as bleach
• Discard contaminated materials in an appropriate waste disposal container
• If you have been exposed to blood or body fluids: • Use soap and water to wash the parts of your body that have been contaminated
• If exposure happens at work, report the incident to your supervisor
• OR contact your physician (non work related)
• Bacteria or viruses are introduced into the air by coughing or sneezing
• Carried by droplets of mucus
• Can be inhaled by other individuals
• TB (tuberculosis) infection rate has been increasing in recent years - it settles in the lungs and can be fatal
• APPROXIMATELY 900,000 CASES
REPORTED TO CDC (total)
– Approximately 100+ Health Care Workers
• Virus is Very Fragile Outside Host and
Dies in a Few to Several Minutes
• No known Cure - Almost Always Fatal
Hepatitis B Virus
• APPROXIMATELY 300,000 NEW
– 8,000-9,000 Health Care Workers
• HBV Has Been Documented to Survive
Two Weeks in Dried Blood
• Can Be Vaccinated for HBV
• May Not Express Outward Symptoms
• May Carry Disease for Life
• “The use of physical or chemical means to remove, inactivate, or destroy blood borne pathogens on a surface or item to the point where they are no longer capable of transmitting infectious particles and the surface or item is rendered safe for handling, use, or disposal.” DECONTAMINATION
• Not recommended for decontamination of possible AIDS/HIV, HBV and Herpes exposures: – Alcohols, quaternary ammonium compounds, phenolics • Recommended:
– sodium hypochlorate solution having at least 500 ppm free available chlorine (1/4 cup liquid household bleach per gallon of tap water.
– Iodine, formaldehyde, glutaraldehyde (may cause toxic fumes in