International Experiences Presented at the
United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Sustainable Urban Transport in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Objectives: To enhance wider information and experience sharing on innovative initiatives and
good practices on modernizing & greening taxi fleets in Latin American cities;
To facilitate the dissemination of innovative technologies and stimulate local consultations on options of regulatory reforms and improvements.
Participants: 63 attendees from 14 countries participated in the Forum.
Taxi Queue in Pereira, Colombia [Photo Courtesy of Mr Alvaro Rodriguez-Valencia (Bogota)]
The Transport Engineering Programme of the COPPE Institute of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs
In collaboration with:
Korea Energy Economics Institute (KEEI)
With the support of:
Korea Energy Management Corporation (KEMCO)
Department of Economic and Social Affairs
As an important part of urban public transport, the taxi distinguishes itself by offering door-to-door or point-to-point transport services, typically operating around the clock. These characters make it a paratransit system simultaneously complementing and competing with other forms of transport. Taxis can also contribute to national economy by creating job opportunities and tax revenues to local authorities.
Different Types of Taxis
However, by driving most of the time in the inner-city areas, taxis also contribute to urban air pollution caused by inefficient fuel use and traffic congestion. Estimates show that in many cities, taxis drive on average more than 50,000 miles (80,000 kilometers) per year in inner-city areas. Though taxis only account for around 2 per cent of the total motor vehicle population, taxis are responsible for approximately 20 per cent of local noise or air pollution and GHG emissions.
Most cities regulate commercial taxi services and systems through licensing systems: (a) restricted access/limitations on numbers of taxi licenses; (b) standardized vehicle specifications and standardized taxi fare systems; (c) requirement on safety and security for both passengers and drivers. In many developing countries, urban taxi markets are often either over-regulated or under-regulated. Frequent use of old or second-hand or highly polluting motor vehicles, high competition of taxi drivers for customers, inadequate or unfair distribution of revenues and risks between taxi owners and drivers, safety and security concerns and unmet transport demand are all factors that can negatively affect the sustainable development of taxi services and system.
Regulatory policies on taxis need to consider all economic, social and environmental dimensions. A sound taxi service system needs to provide affordable mobility for passengers, be available where and when needed, be safe, avoid unnecessary pollution, offer sufficient incomes for owners and drivers, and involve all stakeholders concerned in the policy making process. This booklet aims to (a) inform a wider audience of policy options and good practices and the conclusions and recommendations reached at the
EGM, and (b) enhance understanding of policy options to address the challenges of regulation, modernization and management of urban taxi fleets in growing cities of developing countries. The booklet progresses following the EGM proceedings:
� Policy options and best practices in regulating urban taxi systems;
� Urban transport systems and the role of taxis;
� Vehicle technologies and fuel choices for mitigating urban air pollution and GHG emissions from taxis;
� Taxi of tomorrow: Developments, innovations and trends;
� Conclusions and recommendations.
Access a taxi by Street hail