1. Why do modern companies need managers? -Because so many workers work under one roof today.
2. How are historical management ideas and practices related to the topics you will study in this textbook? -Historical management ideas and practices are related to the topics we study in this textbook because they are the stepping stones and the basis of the different theories and ideas we are studying. Without historical management ideas we would not have newer more modern ideas to study about management.
3. Explain the contributions of Taylor, the Gilbreths, and Gantt to the theory of scientific management. -Frederick Taylor: *Time study- how long is a fair day's work and setting a standard work day (pay would + or - if more or less than standard; payment completely dependent on production) 1. 75% science and 25% common sense 2. breaks increase productivity 3. use systematic study to the find the best way of doing each task 4. scientifically select, train, teach, and develop workers to help them reach their full potential 5. cooperate with employees to ensure implementation of the scientific principles 6. divide the work and responsibility equally between management and workers; 7 developing standardized approaches and tools The Gilbreths: * Motion study - breaking each task or job into its separate motions and then eliminating those that are unnecessary or repetitive ( Bricklaying or Surgery) 1. work place safety + for handicapped people (because after WWI) Henry Gantt: *carrot and stick for work but only carrot-bonuses 1. also recommended to train and develop workers 2. reward for both teacher and pupil for teaching the best method in the shortest time
4. Compare bureaucratic and administrative management. -Bureaucratic Management: to prevent favoritism, it's about following the rules for efficiency, fairness, and effectiveness; but, it's too resistant to change and slow to respond to customers and competitors Administrative Management: the five management functions of leading, planning, organizing, commanding, and coordinating, and controlling
5. Explain the principles of Mary Parker Follett’s human resource management. -* constructive conflict 1. domination 2. compromise 3. integrative conflict resolution- where neither has to sacrifice anything but find an alternative that meets the needs of both; Four fundamental principles: (of working together) 1. coordination affects all factors related in the business 2. coordination by direct contact of the responsible people concerned 3. coordination in the early stages 4. coordination as a continuing process
6. What lessons did we learn from the Hawthorne studies? Summaries Barnard’s contributions on cooperation and acceptance of authority. -Hawthorne Studies: