Mrs. Goodbrake, NT1310
A: Local Loop is simply a loop of copper wire that travels on a cable pair known as twisted pairs. Those pairs allows current to ﬂow from the telephone to the central ofﬁce and back this system was originally designed for voice transmission only using analog transmission technology on a single voice channel.
B: The Central Ofﬁce serves a group of customers in a local area in which the customers are identified by the first three digits of their home phone number. All of these customers are physically connected to the central ofﬁce through a twisted pair cable that is energized with DC voltage.
C: A Local Exchange is a local telephone company that provides service along with other local exchange locations within a geographical are so all the central offices and their customers can interconnect efficiently. These local exchange locations are also known as Local Access and Transport Area “LATA”.
D: The Point of Presence “POP” is the physical connection the provides an interconnection to a long distance carrier.
E: A Long Distance System is a telephone company that provides connections between local exchanges in different geographic areas. In the United States a long distance system is referred as interexchange carriers “IXC”.
F: Bell Telephone Company began installing fixed land lines in 1877 this fixed lines or landlines telephone system consists of two end points and a transmission. The endpoints are the telephone sets” the caller and the receiver of the call”. When a caller dialed a number these numbers gets converted into a form of bits (1s and 0s of computer code) also called binary, regardless of the callers used a pulse or tone dial and that’s where the transmission begins. The call gets transmitted over a pair of twisted wires to a Central Ofﬁce where then is transmitted into a facility known as Local Exchange depending on the destination of the call this call will be transfer to either another central office or to interexchange carrier before reaching the final destination.
Telecommunication Network Components
A cellular telephone system is used for wireless mobile telephones, they communicate through a series of fixed site radio transceivers also known as cell towers in which each operates over a base area where they transmit short analog or digital waves. These cells towers are connected to a mobile telephone switching ofﬁce (MTSO). One of the great advantages of cellular systems is that these cell towers continuously monitor the signal strength received from each mobile phone, and when the signal strength gets weak it will automatically switch over to a physically closer cell tower where the signal is much stronger.
The first generation of voice was 1G, with a data speed of 14.4kbps, and it was based on a system of analogue mobile communication. This narrow band of analogue wireless network was used to give the mobile users the ability to communicate with other users via voice calls provided with basic circuit switching. Shortly after 1G was introduced technology evolved into 2G generation of cellular systems. This second generation that was developed in the late 1980s changed the traditional analog system into digital technology were it provided more clarity to the phone conversations of both the 1G and 2G, since these voice calls had the capability to utilize the maximum bandwidth. The 2G generation brought the first data transmission over the network introducing the customers to new methods of communication known as Short Message Service (SMS) or text messages allowing the users to send messages of up to 160 characters.
As technologies matured users relied heavily on data services. To meet customers’ demands the International