1. Anselm is a theist (theism deism) 2. Gaunilo is a theist 3. Conclusion of Anselm's argument: God exists (A being that which none greater can be conceived exists) 4. Conclusion of Gaunilo's argument: Anselm's argument is flawed/unsound. (A perfect island exists) 5. Gaunilo's analogy: Perfect island
Paley: Argument from design for the existence of God. (also known as: teleological argument) -Teleological: Goal-directed *The basic idea behind any design argument: -When you look in the world, you see evidence of design. -The designer is God. -(When you look at natural objects; trees, etc.) *Paley's idea: Look at the _biological_world. -Other design arguments: look at physics **A priori: Prior to experience
**Posteriori: Based on experience
Are design arguments a priori or a posteriori? *Design arguments are "a posteriori" arguments
Are design arguments deductive (valid or invalid; provide obvious truth) or inductive (provide evidence)? *Inductive
6) Paley talks about finding a watch in the heath (field). What does he say we should infer about the watch? - It had a designer (someone made it) - Even if you had never seen a watch before, you'd make this inference - He says, "If you found a stone, you wouldn't infer a designer." - He says, "If you found a telescope, you'd infer it had a designer." - He says, "If you found an eye, you should also infer it has a designer." § What if watches made watch-babies? § Paley says, All the more evidence for a designer.
Objections to Paley:
1) Paley was writing in 1800. Evolutionary theory came in the mid-1800s.
*Possible ways of 'defending' Paley, in the face of evolutionary biology. 1) The whole evolutionary structure: all the more evidence for a designer. 2) God/ designer is involved in evolutionary processes - "Intelligent