Chapter 15: The Ferment of Reform and Culture
Big Picture Themes:
1. The "Second Great Awakening" began in the 1830s. It's purpose was to wake people from lackluster religion and, like the First Great Awakening, was led by passionate and emotional preachers.
2. The Mormons emerged from these beginnings and wandered westward to the Great Salt Lake.
3. Free public schools began in large measure.
4. There was push to ban alcohol called "temperance." This was led by the ladies; they felt the way to save the family was to ban alcohol.
5. The first women's rights convention was held at Seneca Falls, NY. They asserted that all men, and women were created equal.
6. Many "utopia experiments" began. The overall mission was to perfect society and create true equality.
Most simply failed and none of them succeeded in the ways envisioned.
“Need to Know”
1. Charles Finney
2. Joseph Smith
3. Brigham Young
4. Horace Mann
5. Second Great Awakening
6. American Temperance Society
7. Neal S. Dow
8. Seneca Falls Convention
9. Oneida Community
10. Knickerbocker Group
11. Susan B. Anthony
12. Elizabeth Cady Stanton
13. Noah Webster
14. Knickerbocker Group
Guided Reading Questions/Terms: Chapter 15
1. In what ways did religion in the United States become more liberal and more conservative in the early decades of the 19th century?
Religion became more liberal and more conservative in the early decades of the 19th century due to new denominations such as Deism and Unitarianism. Founding Fathers embraced the liberal doctrines of Deism that Paine promoted; Christian religion still had great inﬂuence over the souls of men in America. More liberal Unitarianism stressed the essential goodness of human nature rather than vileness; they proclaimed their belief in free will and the possibility of salvation through good works; they pictured God not as a stern
Creator but as a loving Father. On the other hand, the nation was still majorly inﬂuenced with Christianity and Protestantism. These new liberl religions angered the more conservative and sought to end them.
2. What effect did the Second Great Awakening have on organized religion?
The affect that the Second Great Awakening had on organized religion is that this tidal wave of spiritual fervor left in its wake countless converted souls, many shattered and reorganized churches, and numerous new sects; also encouraged effervescent evangelicalism that bubbled up into innumerable areas of American life including prison reform, the temperance cause, the women’s movement, and the crusade to abolish slavery.
A Desert Zion in Utah
3. What characteristics of the Mormons caused them to be persecuted by their neighbors?
The characteristics of the Mormons that caused them to be persecuted by their neighbors is that this cooperative sect antagonized rank-and-ﬁle Americans, who were individualistic and dedicated to free enterprise. The Mormons aroused further anger by voting as a unit and by openly but understandingly drilling their militia for defensive purposes. Accusations of polygamy likewise arose and increased in intensity, for Joseph Smith was reputed to have several wives. The conservative religions around such a unique denomination angered many and often sough to remove them by persecution.
Free Schools for a Free People
4. What advances were made in the field of education from 1820 to 1850?
Many advances were made in the ﬁeld of education from 1820 to 1850. Horace Mann campaigned effectively for more and better schoolhouses, longer school terms, higher pay for teachers, and an expanded curriculum. His inﬂuence radiated out to other states, and impressive improvements were chalked up. Educational advances were aided by improved textbooks, notably those of Noah Webster, a