Normal human body temperature, also known as normothermia or euthermia, depends upon the place in the body at which the measurement is made, and the time of day and level of activity of the person. Despite the popular belief, there is no single number that represents a normal or healthy temperature for all people under all circumstances using any place of measurement. Different parts of the body have different temperatures. Rectal and vaginal measurements, or measurements taken directly inside the body cavity, are typically slightly higher than oral measurements, and oral measurements are somewhat higher than skin temperature. The commonly accepted average core body temperature (taken internally) is 37.0 °C (98.6 °F). However, this is actually a 19th Century approximation by German Physician Dr. Carl Wunderlich. The Celsius value is set on an even degree, with the Fahrenheit merely being an overly-precise approximation. The typical oral (under the tongue) measurement, which the cited Harvard study agrees with exactly as the true average human body temperature, is slightly cooler, at 36.8° ± 0.4°C (98.2° ± 0.7°F), and temperatures taken in other places (such as under the arm or in the ear) produce different typical numbers. Although some people think of these numbers as representing the normal temperature, a wide range of temperatures has been found in healthy people.
Variations in body temperature are part of the circadian rhythm (see at 4:30 and
In the article “Can Humans Hibernate?” Sheena L. Faherty, a Ph.D. candidate in the Biology Department at Duke University, and a blogger, questions about humans and hibernation. She begins telling a short, but questionable event for investigators on how a teenager that flew hidden in the wheel of an airplane could have “survived the freezing temperatures and low-oxygen conditions of the unpressurized compartment” (Faherty). She points out that the most probable theory is that he went into a “state…
internal conditions stable. An example of homeostasis is body temperature regulation in humans. Regardless of the external temperature, the core temperature of a healthy individual typically remains the same, at 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit. (Unless under extreme conditions. For example, being below freezing weather and under dressed, could cause the core temperature to decrease, so the heart would pump the blood to the most vital parts of the body, thus making the limbs vulnerable to frostbite because…
enzymes is strongly affected by changes in pH and temperature. Each enzyme works best at pH 7 and temperature 370C in human body. Extremely high or low pH values generally result in complete loss of activity for most enzymes. An enzyme will denature if the pH level is too low or too high. The bonds in the enzyme break and the enzyme loses its shape and it can no longer do its task. Many enzymes are adversely affected by high temperatures. High temperature often causes permanent damage to the molecular…
Homeostasis is the control of internal conditions such as temperature, blood conditions or other variables within living organisms. The purpose of homeostasis is to provide an internal environment so that set processes can occur. Each process or reaction that occurs has a peak environment which is known as a norm. Influences such as external influence can cause departure away from this norm level and the body will correct it which is known as negative feedback.
of the body.
Homeostasis is highly important as many processes going on in our body are based on this phenomenon. Homeostasis processes every day in our body are diffusion, osmosis, active transport etc. Diffusion means movement of solute molecules from a section of its high concentration to the low concentration region. Osmosis is movement of water from a mixed solution to a concentrated solution through a semi-permeable membrane.
Homeostasis is the balance or equilibrium. How your body works…
• normal limits of blood pressure
• conditions of high or low blood pressure
What is a blood pressure?
Blood pressure is measured in millimetres of mercury (mmHg). The reading of a blood pressure is given as two numbers, systolic and diastolic. The systolic reading is first which measures the amount of pressure in your arteries during contraction of your heart muscle. The diastolic reading is second, which measures the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats.
A normal blood…
Pearson Education, Inc.
Figure 1.1 Levels of organization and the related fields of study
Levels of Organization
• Physiology defined
– Study of the normal functioning of a living organism and
its component parts
– Our scope: Human & Normal/Ideal function
– But we will often use pathophysiology to understand and
explain normal physiology
– Greek root “pathos” = suffering/disease
skills, and even the survival of the species. Without the skin, our body could not survive or function.
The skin: A vital organ
The integumentary system is an organ system that includes the skin and its accessory structures, to include the nails, the hair, and the sweat glands. The skin is the largest organ in the body and accounts for 15% of a person’s body weight. As a protector, our skin protects our bodies from trauma acting as a barrier to bacteria and viruses. As a receptor…
gives temperature and humidity during a practice. In the blank, indicate the following: no restriction,
practice canceled, frequent water breaks, shorts and T-shirts, watch all athletes prone to heat
disorders, and practice with 10-minute water breaks.
1. Humidity is 90, and temperature is 95° Fahrenheit (35.0 °C). ______practice cancelled_______
2. Temperature is 70° Fahrenheit (21.1 °C), and humidity is 70._____no restrictions______
3. Humidity is 95, and temperature is 101° Fahrenheit…
As human beings, when we think of water, a few things that come to mind are that we can drink water, we can swim in water, and many other applications. We don’t often think about it, but just as much as we like using water for our everyday needs, water’s unique characteristics and properties are very important in the environment, internally in our bodies, and to the other organisms that also habitat the earth. Certain characteristics of water such as its high specific heat, its density…