Ninepin bowling was introduced to America from Europe during the colonial era. It became very popular and was called "Bowl on the Green". The Dutch, English, and Germans all brought their own versions of the game to the US, where it enjoyed popularity, often with controversies. In 1841 a law in Connecticut banned ninepin-bowling lanes due to associated gambling and crime, and people circumvented the law by adding an extra pin, resulting in the game of ten-pin bowling. In the pin bowling history, it is said that modern ten-pin bowling is nearly related to the nine-pin game kegelspiel of Germany. After the American Civil War, bowling became popular in the northern part of United States, played by German immigrants. By the 1800s, New York was the unofficial capital of bowling, and in 1840, the first indoor bowling alley “Knickerbockers” was built in the city. In 1888, John Brunswick, founder of the Brunswick Corporation, started manufacturing bowling equipment.
A bowling ball is a spherical ball made from plastic, reactive resin, polyurethane or a combination of these materials. Ten-pin bowling balls generally have a set of three holes drilled in them, one each for the ring and middle finger, and one for the thumb; however, rules allow for up to five finger holes. The weight of the ball usually ranges from six pounds to 16 pounds. The maximum limit allowed in tournaments or league games is 16 pounds. Bowling balls come in different colors, and are often either a single flat color, a swirl-like design of multiple colors, gray or a single color with a sparkling look. Regulation states that ten-pin bowling balls must weigh no more than 16 pounds, have absolutely no metallic component materials used anywhere in their makeup, and have a maximum circumference of 27 inches. Ball weights between 12 and 16 pounds (5.4 and 7.3 kg) are common in adult league play. Since the physical dimensions of regulation balls remain the same, while the weight may differ, lighter balls are much less dense than heavier ones.
Bowling pins are the targets of the bowling ball in bowling games. Bowling pins are constructed by gluing blocks of rock maple wood into the approximate shape, and then turning on a lathe. After the lathe shapes the pin, it is coated with a plastic material, painted, and covered with a glossy finish. Because of the scarcity of suitable wood, bowling pins can be made from approved synthetics. When hit by the ball, synthetic pins usually sound different than wood pins. The World Tenpin Bowling Association sets pin specifications. Pins are 4.75 inches wide at their widest point and 15 inches tall. They weigh 3 pounds 6 ounces. The weight of the pins were originally based on the principle of physics, with the idea that a pin should be at around 24-percent the weight of the heaviest bowling ball within regulation of 16 pounds. The pins are numbered from