Terms and Quesitons: Chapter Essay

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Nationalism Terms and Questions

1. Toussaint L’Overture­ Leader of slave rebellion on the French sugar island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to creation of independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
2. Miguel Hidalgo­ Mexican priest who established independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed.
3. Simon Bolivar­ Creole military officer in northern South America; won series of victories in
Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822; military success led to creation of the independent state of Gran Colombia.
4. Jose de San Martin­ Leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata; led to independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movement in Chile and Peru as well.
5. Pedro I­ Son and successor of Dom João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822; became constitutional emperor of Brazil.
6. Caudillos­ Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.
7. Guano­ Bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; exported from Peru as a major item of trade between 1850 and 1880; income from trade permitted end to Indian tribute and abolition of slavery. 8. Mexican­American War­ Fought between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848; led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces, loss of about one­half of Mexico's national territory to the United States.
9. Benito Juarez­ Indian governor of state of Oaxaca in Mexico; leader of liberal rebellion against Santa Anna; liberal government defeated by French intervention under Emperor
Napoleon III of France and establishment of Mexican Empire under Maximilian; restored to power in 1867 until his death in 1872.
10. La Reforma­ The name given to the liberal rebellion of Benito Juárez against the forces of
Santa Anna.
11. Fazendas­ Coffee estates that spread within interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1860; created major export commodity for Brazilian trade; led to intensification of slavery in Brazil.
12. Mexican Revolution­ Fought over a period of almost ten years from 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Díaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
13. Mexican Constitution of 1917­ Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution.
14. Diego Rivera­ Mexican artist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; famous for murals painted on walls of public buildings; mixed romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.

15. Cristeros­ Conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; most active in central
Mexico; attempted to halt slide toward secularism; movement resulted in armed violence.
16. Porfirio Diaz­ One of Juárez's generals;