1. Toussaint L’Overture Leader of slave rebellion on the French sugar island of St. Domingue in 1791; led to creation of independent republic of Haiti in 1804.
2. Miguel Hidalgo Mexican priest who established independence movement among Indians and mestizos in 1810; despite early victories, was captured and executed.
3. Simon Bolivar Creole military officer in northern South America; won series of victories in
Venezuela, Colombia, and Ecuador between 1817 and 1822; military success led to creation of the independent state of Gran Colombia.
4. Jose de San Martin Leader of independence movement in Rio de la Plata; led to independence of the United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata by 1816; later led independence movement in Chile and Peru as well.
5. Pedro I Son and successor of Dom João VI in Brazil; aided in the declaration of Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822; became constitutional emperor of Brazil.
6. Caudillos Independent leaders who dominated local areas by force in defiance of national policies; sometimes seized national governments to impose their concept of rule; typical throughout newly independent countries of Latin America.
7. Guano Bird droppings utilized as fertilizer; exported from Peru as a major item of trade between 1850 and 1880; income from trade permitted end to Indian tribute and abolition of slavery. 8. MexicanAmerican War Fought between Mexico and the United States from 1846 to 1848; led to devastating defeat of Mexican forces, loss of about onehalf of Mexico's national territory to the United States.
9. Benito Juarez Indian governor of state of Oaxaca in Mexico; leader of liberal rebellion against Santa Anna; liberal government defeated by French intervention under Emperor
Napoleon III of France and establishment of Mexican Empire under Maximilian; restored to power in 1867 until his death in 1872.
10. La Reforma The name given to the liberal rebellion of Benito Juárez against the forces of
11. Fazendas Coffee estates that spread within interior of Brazil between 1840 and 1860; created major export commodity for Brazilian trade; led to intensification of slavery in Brazil.
12. Mexican Revolution Fought over a period of almost ten years from 1910; resulted in ouster of Porfirio Díaz from power; opposition forces led by Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zapata.
13. Mexican Constitution of 1917 Promised land reform, limited foreign ownership of key resources, guaranteed the rights of workers, and placed restrictions on clerical education; marked formal end of Mexican Revolution.
14. Diego Rivera Mexican artist of the period after the Mexican Revolution; famous for murals painted on walls of public buildings; mixed romantic images of the Indian past with Christian symbols and Marxist ideology.
15. Cristeros Conservative peasant movement in Mexico during the 1920s; most active in central
Mexico; attempted to halt slide toward secularism; movement resulted in armed violence.
16. Porfirio Diaz One of Juárez's generals;