Extra Credit: Dan Rather, Tuesday, Feb. 18
Foster Ballroom, 7pm
Lesson Idea: As Britain tightened control over the colonies in the wake of war with France;
British colonists rejected these policies, and began to take uneasy but drastic steps toward independence. French & Indian War (1754-1763)
3 Empires: Spain, France, & England
• Ohio Valley Territory
• All sorts of battles: George Washington
• These empires have colonies all around the world
• This war starts in North America and spreads around the globe
French & Indian War Highlights
• Washington lost most of his battles
• Colonies have the ability to work together: whether or not they do depends
• End in 1763 with the Treaty of Paris 1763: British wins
• Spanish gets Louisiana Territory
• British takes over the rest
• Access to major rivers: British has access to the Ohio River and MS River
• Now they can transport things; rivers serve as highways
• Native Americans still are out there
• Proclamation of 1763: to prevent clash with the Indians
• British men can’t live west of the Proclamation line.
• After winning, would you like for someone telling you you can’t go pass an imaginary line? No.
• Debt was a major issue because wars take money
• How are they going to pay back their debt? They turn to the American colonies to make up the money • British spent 7 years protecting the American colonies, so now the America has to pay them back.
• Britain passes the Sugar Act of 1764 o Lowers the tax to 3cent from the original 6-cent o Strict enforcement (they have tax collectors going around)
• Molasses Act (1733) o 6-cent tax on every gallon of molasses o Loose enforcement
• Currency Act of 1764 o Removed paper money o Bullion (card money; gold/silver)
• Direct tax: Stamp Act (1765) o Tax on paper: legal documents; newspaper; playing cards; etc.… o Already in effect in England o Apply taxes equally in the British Empire
o It affects everyone; want to get married? Want to sell something? College diplomas? Any paper was taxed
• Quartering Act (1765) o Colonies must house soldiers o Provide firewood, etc.
• Patrick Henry organized a protest against the Stamp Act.
• Lawyers get mad.
• Stamp Act Congress, New York, 1765: 9 Representatives from 13 colonies met here o Taxes from colonial assemblies only (Virginia can only tax Virginia) o Trial by jury o Rights of Englishmen o Voting representation in Parliament o ---Virtual Representation (was there, but had no vote)
• Parliament argued that everyone did not need a voting right
• Colonists had a problem with that
• They wanted to vote
• Sons of Liberty—organized groups of farmers, etc. They originated in Massachusetts; they hung papers; burned things; hustle up merchants who charged taxes & whipped them to they bleed; etc. • Declaratory Act (1706): (opposition of the Stamp Act) repealed the Stamp Act; Parliament stated that they had the right to pass laws in all forms including tax laws
• Parliament is asserting their authority
• Even though they repealed the Stamp Act, a few years later they passed the Townshend Act
• Taxing paper, lead, paint, goods, cloth, tea, etc. (40+)
• Colonists began to boycott
• Sons of liberty gets more involved
• Professional Revolutions (Sons of Liberty) o Samuel Adams; Son of Liberty; Massachusetts House of Representatives; he said this should be a colonial boycott o John Hancock; Smuggler; he got caught; his ship was seized; charges against him were eventually dropped o Patrick Henry; Drama Queen; member of Virginia’s House of Burgess; involved with the protest of the Sugar & Stamp Act
• Most of these guys were from Boston
• All of the taxes were repealed except the tax on tea
• The colonists turned to violence
• Boston Massacre
• British soldiers put on trial; John Adams defends the soldiers; they were found innocent because it was self defense
• Committees of Correspondence o Point people to communicate amongst the colonies o By 1773 all but 3 colonies