Tests for Ions, Gases, and Water Essay

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TESTS FOR IONS, GASES and WATER – QUICK REFERENCE SHEET

|Test |Observations |Inferences |Ionic Equation |
|To solution of compound add dilute nitric acid by |White precipitate. |Ppt. = silver chloride |Ag+(aq) + Cl-(aq) ( AgCl(s) |
|aqueous silver nitrate followed | |Cl- ions present | |
| |Cream precipitate. |Ppt. = silver bromide |Ag+(aq) + Br-(aq) ( AgBr(s) |
| | |Br- ions present | |
| |Pale yellow precipit.ate |Ppt. = silver iodide |Ag+(aq) + I-(aq) ( AgI(s) |
| | |I- ions present | |
|To solution of compound add aqueous barium chloride |White ppt. |Ppt. = barium sulphate |Ba2+(aq) + SO42-(aq) ( BaSO4(s) |
|followed by dilute hydrochloric acid. | |SO42- ions present | |
|To compound add dilute acid (e.g. HCl, HNO3 or H2SO4). |Effervescence giving colourless gas. Gas turns lime water milky |Gas = CO2 |CO32-(s/aq) + 2H+(aq) ( CO2(g) + H2O(l) |
| | |CO32- ions present | |
|To solution of compound add dilute sodium hydroxide |Light blue (gelatinous) ppt. |Ppt = copper II hydroxide |Cu2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) ( Cu(OH)2(s) |
| | |Cu2+ ions present | |
| |Red/brown (gelatinous) ppt. |Ppt = iron III hydroxide |Fe3+(aq) + 3OH-(aq) ( Fe(OH)3(s) |
| | |Fe3+ ions present | |
| |Green(dark) (gelatinous) ppt. |Ppt = iron II hydroxide |Fe2+(aq) + 2OH-(aq) ( Fe(OH)2(s) |
| | |Fe2+ ions present…