New Imperialism – 1800-1914
Imperialism: Domination by one country of the political, cultural or economic life of another country or region.
First Imperialism: Christopher Columbus
Causes of New Imperialism
Increased European demand and competition for resources.
New land = New markets for goods
Political and Military Motives
Overseas Empire = Power and Prestige
Refueling Stations and Trade Routes
Rivalries led nations to seize lands so others couldn’t.
Religious and Humanitarian Motives
Believed duty to bring non-Christians to Christianity
Some Europeans believed in the superiority of their race and culture.
Kipling = Poem “The White Mans Burden” – Seen as indicative of western Attitudes
Success of Western Imperialism:
Weakness in many nonwestern Nations
Africa, Asia, and Middle East in decline
Advantages of Western Nations
New medical knowledge
Quinine and other developments allowed Europeans to survive better in Tropics
Maxim Machine Gun and Breech Loading and Repeating Rifles
New Methods of Transportation and Communication
Telegraph, railroads, and steam boats
Combined with new weapons these will allow Europeans to control large areas with smaller forces.
Types of Imperialism
Direct Rule – sending officials and solders to run the colony
Indirect rule – using traditional local leaders to enforce colonial rule.
British = Indirect
France = Direct Protectorate
Local rulers remained in power but followed the advice of a foreign power on matters such as trade. Sphere of Influence
Area in which an outside power claims exclusive investment and trading privileges
Imperialism in Africa
Europeans Explore Africa
Prior to 1800 European knowledge of Africa’s’ interior is limited due to: Disease and Difficult Terrain
European Interest Limited to coastal regions
In the 19th Century Europeans begin to explore and map the interior.
News of their journeys increased public interest in Africa
David Livingstone: Explores much of Africa – Best known as missionary and explorer
The Scramble for Africa
Competition for territory and resources in Africa
European Nations begin to stake claims
Known as scramble for Africa
Increased tension in European Nations
The Berlin Conference
Africa is not invited
Goal – Reduce tensions by setting rules
Examples of Imperialism
The Congo :
King Leopold II of Belgium gained personal control over the Congo
The resources are exploited through the labor of Native people
Over 20 yrs millions died or were mutilated under Leopold
British took an interest in Egypt because of the Suez Canal and cotton production. Britain gained control of the Cape Colony in 1815
Britain becomes involved in conflicts with two groups as their interests expanded
Dutch (Afrikaners) and the Zulu’s The British first confronted the Zulu in the late 1870’s
European Power will face serious resistance in all parts of Africa
By the Early 1900’s only Ethiopia and Liberia were still free.
Menelik II King of Ethiopia
Used money from trade to modernize his military
Battle of Adowa – successfully defeats Italian Invasion
Impact of Imperialism in Africa
Colonial rule weakens traditional rulers
Weakens or destroys traditional culture
Mission/Colonial Schools teach European Cultures, Tradition and Values
Intro of Money Economy:
Forces many Africans to work for Europeans
Dependency: Colonies depend on export of one or two products.
Forced together different ethnic or cultural groups – created later political strife.
Imperialism in Asia/India
The Mughal Empire ruled India from the 1500’s to 1800’s
Peak – Empire was large and strong as Europe
Imperialism in India
European merchants compete for trade (spices)
Early 1600’s – British East India Company gains trading rights with Mughal Empire
As Mughal power declined the power and influence increased in the British