The Aging Musculoskeletal System At the age of 84, your bones have taken a toll throughout your life time. This leaves you susceptible to a few bone diseases. Three of the most common diseases are Osteoporosis, Osteoarthritis and Muscular Atrophy. With Osteoporosis, it is a disease in which bones become fragile and more likely to fracture. Usually the bone loses density, which measures the amount of calcium and minerals in the bone. Since our bones undergo bone remodeling quite often in the younger years we do not think of the potential or likelihood of being diagnosed with Osteoporosis or Osteoarthritis. However as we age our bones do not recover and remodel as fast, causing loss of bone density. The more mass that is “banked” when younger leads to the smaller risk of having the disease. Much like Osteoporosis is Osteoarthritis. The more wear and tear you put on your bones and joints the more susceptible you are to Osteoarthritis. With these disorders maintain a popular quo among the elderly, the future diagnosis is generally inevitable. An 84 year old thin female has more than likely already been diagnosed with one of the two disorders, if not both. Osteoarthritis can be very painful and can on more than one occasion hinder any plans that have been set forth, from a trip to the grocery store or an entire vacation. This is especially true of those who have the arthritis in their hands, fingers and knees. The final of the three, dependent on how you look at it, can be the…
how you increase your bone mass. As you age your bone mass is however lost faster than it is created. The more bone mass you have attained the less likely you are to get osteoporosis (“Osteoporosis: Causes”, 2013).
Osteoarthritis is related to aging mostly. The cartilages water content increases and the protein makeup of the cartilage degenerates as you age. Overtime the cartilage begins to flake or form tiny crevasses which are degeneration. You start to feel pain and have limited joint mobility…
The Muscular System
The human body has 656 individual muscles
327 antagonistic muscles and two unpaired muscles as the Orbicularis oris muscle and the Diaphragm
Functions of Muscle
1. Movement: skeletal muscles are attached to bones by tendons. Because skeletal muscles Cross joints, when these muscle contract, the bones they attach to move this allows for various body motions, such as walking or waving your hands.
2. Stability : muscles are Holding your bones tightly together so it Stabilize…
muscle the body mass will decrease. During ageing the muscle fibers will begin to shrink; muscle tissue is replaced very slowly. Muscles will have less tone & less ability to contract. They will also become rigid with age.
Due to the nervous system being affected as you age the senses are also affected. During ageing the senses of balance will become impaired. The senses will become less sharp and you may have trouble telling apart details. Due to sensory changes you may struggle with communicating…
Osteoporosis is a condition that affects more than 10 million people. Thirty four million people suffer from low bone mass. Osteoporosis is mostly cause by ageing and menopause. Natural aging causes a decrease in osteoblast activity, resulting in low bone mass. Menopause causes an increase in osteoclast activity ultimately increasing bone reabsorption. The activity of the osteoblasts and osteoclasts is imperative for proper bone strength. Additionally, people with other lifestyle factors…
defines ergonomics as follows:
Ergonomics (or human factors) is the scientific discipline concerned with the understanding of interactions among humans and other elements of a system, and the profession that applies theory, principles, data and methods to design in order to optimize human well-being and overall system performance.
Ergonomics is employed to fulfill the two goals of health and productivity. It is relevant in the design of such things as safe furniture and easy-to-use interfaces…
sunscreen for protection of sunlight and tries to keep away from being in direct sunlight. Also takes multivitamin.
Head and neck: Complains of infrequent headaches readily relieved with OTC medications. Reports hair thinning but attributes that to aging. Has dizziness, which is relieved with prescribed Meclizine medication. Denies limitation of movement, lumps or swelling in neck.
Eyes: States her vision is well when wearing corrective lenses. She has worn corrective lenses since age 42. Reports…
school in the ninth grade. States he never was a very good student. He got into a gang and started selling drugs at the age of 15. Since being incarcerated he is taking GED classes and hopes to earn his GED within the next six months.
Review of Systems
General. Denies fatigue, malaise, fever, chills or sweats.
Skin. No history of skin disease. Denies any changes in moles, excessive dryness or moisture, pruritis, excessive bruising, rash or lesions. No problems with toes or feet.
and less severe visual difficulties. Tests were done on the hair roots of individuals with albinism, to tell these types of albinism apart. However, these hair tests cannot identify types of albinism, particularly in young children, whose pigment systems are immature. Therefore, hair tests are not helpful in predicting the level of visual disability of a child.
Albinism is located on chromosome 11q 14-21. The gene associated with albinism is called OCA1 (ocular albinism). OCA1 codes for the protein…
This shift in demographics, which is further compounded by the effects of
HIV/AIDS on family structure in African and increasingly
also in southeast Asian countries, is likely to weaken
traditional respect for elderly people and family-based
systems for providing old-age care and support,
making elderly people vulnerable to ill-treatment and
abuse by carers and society as a whole.
In their Seminar on elder abuse, Mark Lachs and Karl
Pillemer look at prevalence, deﬁnitions, the evidence for…