Essay 1. The Catholic Church was the main power in western civilization and was landholder in Europe. There were mandatory tithes, which also made the church very wealthy. The church was in control of everything including what language was spoken to education. The pope had claimed total spiritual authority over all Christians and often had political authority over the kings he approved. Although the church had started with a lot of power over the years the power began to transfer. II.) The significance of the crusade marked the transformation of Europe from the Dark Ages. It tested the power of the Papacy and the reach of EU’s power, which also weakened feudalism. The emperor of Byzantine wrote to the pope in 1095 asking for protection of his people and all Christians. In November 1095, pope Urban II asked and audience in Clermont, France to form a voluntary army. The first crusade was mostly the wealthy. The crusaders massacred Jews on the way because they were wealthy and because they were blamed for Christ’s death. The main forces reached Byzantium in May 1097; it was a major victory in Antioch. The second crusade Seljuk’s reorganized and began planning a jihad against the crusaders. Less than fifty years later, the Seljuk’s took back some of the crusader land. The purpose of these lands was to gain holy land. Also, he pope promised salvation for anyone who fought in the crusades. III.) The third crusade (crusade of kings) on, the crusades begin to become more political. Saladin united the armies and recaptured Jerusalem in 1187. At the fourth crusade the religious point was completely lost. The crusaders stopped in Constantinople and sacked and conquered it instead which seriously weakened it for investigable conquest by the Ottoman Turks. The Venetians agreed to provide the necessary ships only on condition that the crusaders first seized Zara on the eastern coast of the Adriatic. Zara was a Christian city, but it was also a naval and commercial rival of Venice. In spite of the pope's protests the crusaders besieged and captured the city. Christian soldiers from west aided the venetians in ransacking Constantinople. They had established a Latin empire in Constantinople which the people resisted and re-established their culture in 1261. IV.) The Babylonian Captivity is exile of the Jews in Babylonia The Babylonian Captivity occurred between 597 and 538 when large numbers of Jews were taken captive by Nebuchadnezzar, ruler of the Chaldeans, and held in Babylon. They were only released because Cyrus who allowed the Jews to go back to Jerusalem and rebuild their temple conquered Babylon. After the capture of the city by the Babylonians some thousands, probably selected for their prosperity and importance, were deported to Mesopotamia. V.) Pope Leo X was raising money for St. Peter’s basilica through the sale of indulgences. John Tetzel was the seller of indulgences in Northern Germany who even sold indulgences to cover future sins. When Martin Luther could take it no more he publicly protested by nailing a placard with ninety- five theses criticizing the church doctrine to the door of the church in Wittenberg. These were copied and distributed throughout Germany leading to a slow down of the sale of indulgences. Pope Leo X sent envoys to try to chance Luther’s mind and finally excommunicated Luther in 152.Essay #2 I.) In Europe, people were isolated again because of the plague outbreak. Trade had slowed to a stop. A small portion of people remerged how an economy works, and a small amount of people had survived. Workers were allowed to have more pay rights. This lead to the English peasant war in 1381. Louis XI united as much of France as best he could. Although England and France revolted around English land in France specifically Normandy, England and France had conflicts with their monarchs and governments. II.) Issued was an abaundt English land in France specifically Normand. Edward III laid claim to be the
political (power), religious (faith) and personal (love)reasons.
One reason for the break with Rome was political reasons (power) because after losing most his finance in battle against the king of Spain, Francis I, who was angry at Henry for embarrassing his aunt Catherine of Aragon who at this time was Henry’s wife. When Henry found out the amount of power the Catholic Church in England had, he thought if he changed the Religion in England the amount of Power he would have if he was the head…
What were the responses of the Catholic authorities in the sixteenth century to the challenges posed by the Lutheran Reformation?
Through the spread of Lutheranism and, consequently, the Lutheran Revolution, the power and credibility of the Catholic Church significantly weakened. This in turn elicited what is known as the Catholic or Counter Reformation in which the Catholic Church made its best attempts to redefine their structure and regain power as an institution. In order to do so, Pope…
Power Struggle: The Monarchies Against the Church
The ardent fighting between Pope Boniface VIII and Phillip the Fair set the tone for what would be the 1300s and on. Beginning with Pope Boniface VIII, the church had usurped tremendous amounts of power in Europe and the church began to be questioned. There was no king, queen or governmental structure above the church, which allowed the Catholic Church to assert their power and become the body of every day life in Europe. Meanwhile it also dictated…
time of Jesus' birth, but they know it was sometime around 5 B.C. The Jewish religion believes that there is going to be a messiah (the anticipated savior of the Jews). When Jesus claimed to be the messiah chosen by God, many people thought that he was telling the truth. Those people that did believe Jesus, became Christians. The people that didn't believe Jesus, kept their religion.
The Orthodox religion was founded in 1054 but had a gradual development. It was found in Constantinople, Eastern Roman…
has a dual setting between the 1950’s Catholic Ireland and the post world war two world of Brooklyn, America. The two locations help to expose the contrasting values and attitudes of the characters in their world.
The role of women in society is vital for my understanding of…
In the 1500s the Catholic Church monopolized religion in Europe. Christianity is centered on the belief that a persons soul continues to live after their body is dead and gone. This ‘afterlife’ can be spent in heavenly rewards, know as salvation or the punishments of hell know as damnation. The Roman Catholic Church presented its officials as the arbiters of salvation. As the text points out “Most [people] believed that the Catholic Church held the keys to salvation, providing…
Causes of Reformation
Church leaders were corrupt
Merchants resented church tax
Where did Reformation begin?
Came to the conclusion that faith alone was the key to salvation
Believed that all people of faith are equal
Personal interpretation of bible (no need for church)
“It began with attempts to reform the roman catholic church, and it ended shattering the religious unity of Europe”
Power and Authority
It has always been known since the beginning of time that we must answer to a higher authority or power. From the day we are born we are aware of this fact and as we grow in age and in wisdom this idea of power and authority seems to change and grow. Every society has its own set of governing rules or authorities that most people are expected to abide by. These rules and authorities can vary from political laws, social expectancies…
based economy in England meant that most people lived in the countryside however London was one of the larger urban areas. England’s population was somewhere around 3 to 7 million people, majority being peasants. The church was incredibly important at the time, the kings word was said to be appointed by god meaning that the people believed the kings word was also Gods word giving him unquestioned power. England was also battling the hundred year war against England which meant continuous conflict at…
joining such a cult was that some people with a poor status could rise in the ranks of their cult, leading to a better life even as branded as poor. The silk roads provided a means to spread these religions for the Romans.
Unlike the Romans, Byzantine was more of a monotheistic society. They were a Christian Empire. It was for this reason that the Church of Holy Wisdom was created. This church created what was called the Body of Civil Law. A new idea emerged from this time which was the belief in religious…