Essay on The Causes of Federation in Australia Are Both Pragmatic and Ideological. Outline and Analyse Some of Those Causes as a Rationale for Federation.

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The causes of Federation in Australia are both pragmatic and ideological. Outline and analyse some of those causes as a rationale for federation.

The federation of Australia was the development by which the six separate British self-governing colonies of New South Wales, Western Australia, South Australia, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland united together and formed one nation. The constitution of Australia came into force on the 1st of January 1901. There are many pragmatic and ideological reasons as to the cause of federation within Australia, which will be discussed in further detail and depth. The pragmatic causes that will be discussed include trade and transport, defense, and immigration. The trade and transport issues relate to
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If Australia was to unite and become one, then this would mean they would have a better chance at protecting Australia and achieving a united defence force to help do this. If the forces from each colony were to join, it would better protect Australia and they would be equipped to deal with any matters of foreign policy.

By the end of the 1850s, there were some ‘42000 Chinese in Victoria and 15000 in New South Wales’ (Meaney, 1999, p. 14). Australia didn’t accept these Chinese individuals. They were excluded and were not welcome in the country due to their complexion, language and customs. They were thought to be ‘incapable of being brought into what English men understood and value as true civilisation’ (Meaney, 1999, p. 15). The colonies believed that the Asian people might overwhelm and invade them, just as they had been overwhelmed with the Aboriginal peoples. The European miners were very resentful at having to compete with the Chinese, and they often resorted to violence to expel them from the diggings. It was not only the Chinese who stole the Australian jobs; there were also the Kanakas. They were brought to Australia to work in the Queensland sugarcane fields. The conditions that the Kanakas worked in were very cruel. They worked in the sweltering weather conditions, and were also paid at a very cheap price. Because they were foreigners, business people were able to pay them an incredibly minimal wage