The nervous system isn’t the only message-relaying system of the human body. The endocrine system also carries messages. The endocrine system, is a system of glands that release chemical messenger molecules into the bloodstream. Other endocrine glands includes; the thyroid gland which is a large gland in the neck or also called trachea. These hormones increase the rate of metabolism in cells throughout the body, influence metabolism, growth and development, and body temperature. The main hormone is thyroxine, also called T4. During infancy and childhood, adequate thyroid hormone is crucial for brain development. They also control how quickly cells use protein and make proteins. The pineal gland is a tiny gland located at the base of the brain and it secretes the hormone melatonin. This hormone controls sleep-wake cycles and several other processes. The pineal gland connects the endocrine system with the nervous system in which it converts nerve signals from the sympathetic systems of the peripheral nervous system into hormone signals. The pancreas is located near the stomach. Its hormones include insulin and glucagon. These two hormones work together to control the level of glucose in the blood. Insulin causes excess blood glucose to be taken up by the liver, which stores the glucose as glycogen (a group of polysaccharide of glucose). Glucagon stimulates the liver to break down glycogen into glucose and release it back into the blood. The pancreas also secretes digestive enzymes into the digestive tract. The two adrenal glands are located above the kidneys. Each gland has an inner and outer part. The outer part, called the cortex, secretes hormones such as cortisol (which helps the body to deal with stress), and aldosterone (which helps regulate the balance of minerals in the body). For example; adrenaline increases the amount of oxygen and glucose going to the muscles. The last endocrine gland is the gonads which secrete sex hormones. The male gonads are called testes and they secrete the male sex hormone testosterone. The female gonads are called ovaries and they secrete the female sex hormone estrogen. Sex hormones are involved in the changes of puberty. They also controls the production of gametes by the gonads. The messenger molecules are hormones. Hormones act slowly compared with the rapid transmission of electrical messages by the nervous system. They must travel through the bloodstream to the cells they affect, and this takes time. On the other hand, because endocrine hormones are released into the bloodstream, they travel throughout the body. As a result, endocrine hormones can affect many cells and have body-wide effects. The hypothalamus is actually part of the brain, but it also secretes hormones. Some of its hormones that “tell” the pituitary gland to either secrete or stop secreting its hormones. In this way, the hypothalamus provides a link between the nervous and endocrine systems. The hormones include antidiuretic hormone, which stimulates the kidneys to conserve water by producing more concentrated urine and oxytocin, which stimulates the contractions of childbirth among other functions. The hypothalamus also produces hormones that directly regulate different body processes. These hormones travel to the pituitary gland, which stores them until they are needed. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are located close together at the base of the brain. How do the endocrine hormones works? Well, endocrine hormones travel throughout the body in the blood. However, each hormone affects only certain cells, called target cells. A target cell is the type of cell on which a hormone has an effect. A target cell is affected by a particular hormone because it has receptor proteins that are specific to the bloodstream until it finds a target cell with a matching receptor it can blind to. After this happens, it causes a change within the cell. Exactly how its works depends on whether the hormone is a steroid hormone or a
Anterior- with respect to the central nervous system located near or toward the head Posterior- located near or toward the tail (back of head) Rostral- towards the beak with respect to the central nervous system, in a direction along the neuroaxis toward the front of the face Caudal- in a direction alng the neuroaxis away from the front of the face Dorsal- toward the back in a direction perpendicular to the neuroaxis toard the top of head or the back Ventral- toward the belly- in a direction perpendicular…
With this assignment I am going to talk about what we know of neurons within our nervous system and how they contribute to help us understand human behaviour. The first part of this assignment will describe how neurons in the central nervous system communicate with other neurons. In the second and final part I would like to discuss how neurons have helped us to understand human behaviour. I will do this with the help of examples from the textbook.
I would like to start with describing the biological…
stresses of real life under controlled conditions of sport and play."
In essence, the technology that is created are a type of reaction to a pain of the body, or dis-ease or discomfort within. Unless the area is located as the problem, our nervous system will protect itself from pain by producing a counter or balance of that pain in a a form that is a representation of that offending pain, accordingly to where that pain derives from in the body. Many times we are unable to locate the discomfort…
Stimulants have a major affect on the nervous system in many ways. Stimulants can act in many ways, one way that stimulants can act is by enhancing a neurotransmitter effect or inhibiting it. Stimulants can also increase the activity and responsiveness of the central nervous system.
The only time its beneficial for our behavior to be unconscious is when we are asleep. Its not beneficial to be unconscious when we are in a public situation. Yes you can recognize unconscious behavior, especially…
neuron, central, and peripheral nervous systems
The nervous system consists of a complex network of nerves and cells. Through the complex networks of nerves and cells the messages carry from and to the brain and spinal cord to different parts of the body. The nervous system comprises both the Central nervous system and Peripheral nervous system. The Central nervous system is counting of the brain and spinal cord and The Peripheral nervous system is counting of the Somatic and the Autonomic nervous systems…
There are two main
Parts of the nervous
Central nervous system
• Made up of the brain and the spinal cord
Peripheral nervous system
• Made up of sensory neurons, clusters of neurons
called ganglia, and nerves connecting them to each
other and to the central nervous system. These
regions are all interconnected by means of complex
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The cerebellum is the
part of the autonomic nervous
system. Acts on both the central and peripheral nervous system and is used in
the motor division of the somatic nervous system. Acts as an inhibitor in
cardiac tissue which slows the heart rate.
action potential - a short-lasting event in which the electrical membrane
potential of a cell rapidly rises and falls, following a consistent trajectory.
Autonomic Nervous System - is the part of the peripheral nervous system that
acts as a control system that functions largely…
The Nervous System is a complex and important part of body and your life function. The Nervous System consists of the brain and the spinal cord; and off of that there are the neurons. There are three types of neurons, and each have their own responsibilities. The neuron is a nerve cell, going off into its own class. There are two sections of the Nervous System, the Central Nervous System; and the Peripheral Nervous System. The Neuron is an impulse conductor, so it creates its own type of electricity…
Overdose on cocaine⁄Nervous system
A young woman is brought into the emergency room with extremely dilated pupils.Her friends state that she has overdosed on cocaine.Alot of details of the nervous system will be revealed.Including nuerons,the central nervous system.What the central nervous system consists of.The peripheral system and what it also consists of.The activity…