The Church in the High Middle Ages
Decline of the Church
According to tradition, Christ handed the "keys to the kingdom" over to Peter. Because he died in the city of Rome, the Bishop of Rome claimed prominence over all other bishops as the successor of Peter. By the 4th century, the Bishop of Rome also became known as the Pope, the official head of the Roman Catholic Church
Lay Investiture is lay people (people not working for the church) interfering in what should be a solely religious affair: the appointment of church officials.
King Philip IV of France felt he had the right to tax the clergy (church officials) in France. When Pope Boniface refused, King Philip sent troops to capture the Pope who later died of natural causes.
Charlemagne (Charles the Great) came to the throne in 768 that the kingdom would be reunited and strengthened. Charlemagne ruled until his death in 814 and is considered the greatest ruler of the Western Medieval period. A hardy warrior, he took part in 54 campaigns which expanded his kingdom over most of Western and Central Europe.
Monks assumed the role of copying and preserving important books. Because of this, monasteries became centers of learning. Their copied manuscripts were a bridge from the knowledge of the Roman Empire to the Renaissance that would occur after 1400.
The time period in which the papal capital was in Avignon was called the Babylonian Captivity.
There were now two popes and…