The topic of justice remains a debatable subject within the book The Republic of Plato. There are three definitions that have been discussed, including Thrasymachus a sophist whose view on justice is the "advantage of the strong", and Cephalus and Polemarchus' views on justice being "giving to each what is owed" or "helping friends and harming enemies". All of these views have been discussed and thoroughly debated, interestingly enough the majority of the commentary in the book consisted of Socrates criticizing the other characters definitions without mentioning his own explanation of justice. However, eventually he does bring up an interesting principle of specialization; in his opinion justice is state in which each person performs the role which they are naturally best suited for. For instance, a carpenter must only build thing and farmer must only farm and be concerned with agriculture. According to Socrates this principle of specialization allows everything to be done at the highest level possible. With this though in mind, Socrates begins to build the foundations of the “healthy” city. To contradict his view he also creates the “feverish” city to explain the repercussions of a city full of luxuries. In essence, the cities that Socrates creates provide insight into his political philosophy and definition of justice. For instance, in the “healthy” city only necessities of life are accepted like food, clothing, health and shelter. Thus, according to the principle of specialization the citizens of the city would be participating in their roles in the “producing class” because their role is to produce objects for use. Also, these craftsmen, doctors, and farmers must complete their jobs without interfering or engaging in any other role. Only in this way, Socrates is convinced, can everything be done at the highest level possible. The healthy city consists only of producers whose only role is to produce what is absolutely necessary for life. The advantages of this type of city are that if everyone is specifically assigned to a role that is best for them naturally they should be happy with their position in society. The citizens would be content with what they provide society with and this happiness would lower the risk of conflict. Since every citizen is responsible to develop a particular skill and to strive toward excellence at that particular craft the healthy city accepts their own natural abilities and acknowledges that each citizen does not have equal abilities. The disadvantages of this type of city are people do not have the ability to choose their own lifestyle, wealth or occupation. Much of the citizen’s lives who live in the “healthy” city would be predetermined from birth and this could lead to unhappiness. Glaucon points out that the type of city is impossible and he even goes on to call it the “city of pigs” since people naturally have both necessary and unnecessary needs. Continuing this further, he argues that people naturally have a desire to want more and crave r rich food, luxurious surroundings, and art. In a similar manner, based on Socrates definition of justice as a state in which every individuals performs a role that is naturally best suited for them” from his outlook there would be very little opportunity for injustice to occur. However, as previously mentioned citizens would only have on responsibility, farmer would farm and doctors would heal the sick, but the people who had multiple talents would be limited to one job and this can be considered unjust. In fact many people believe that “there is nothing worse in the world than wasted talent”. Socrates’ “healthy city is positive in the sense that it promotes selflessness and places a particular emphasis on only having what is necessary, however it is negative because its structure limits its citizens to fully explore and develop their talents and enjoy the luxuries of life. Continuing this further, it was obvious that Socrates had the right…
The City of Chicago
Brandon J. McGruder
This focus of this paper is to assess the current sources of revenue for the local government in Chicago. Therefore, it will evaluate the current financial management procedures used in Chicago Municipality and establish the loophole that needs to be addressed in order to have better utilization of resources so as to benefit the people. Chicago as a municipality generates revenues from tax, personal and utility tax, and grants…
City of Houston Essay
From the annual Livestock Rodeo to the home of the famous Texans, Houston is definitely the place to be. Although our city is so close to perfect, there are still a few minor and major changes that can be added or tweaked to improve Houston and the lives of Houstonians.
One problem that Houston has is the violence occurring and the effect it has on the youth. If I were in the shoes of a city employee or even the mayor, the first thing I would work on is to add more…
The elected City of London Corporation acts as the local authority for the Square Mile business district around St Paul’s. It supports the UK-based financial services industry and provides many other services and facilities for London and the wider UK as well as provides open space and safeguards heritage. The City Corporation has three sources of finance: local authority, its own charity, and an endowment fund. All City of London services involve procurement. Procurement can…
Manhattan, at the intersection of Fifth Avenue and West 34th Street
The Empire State Building is the world’s most famous office building.
It’s a classic New York City attraction; it offers a wonderful view of New York City and the surrounding area.
Located in the Bronx borough of New York City within Bronx Park.
It is the world’s largest urban zoo. Housing more than 6,000 animals representing about 650 species from around the world, the zoo comprises 265…
March 20, 2013
Country Versus City Living
There are many advantages and disadvantages to living in the city and the country. There are some major differences between the two and before some one considers either they really need to think about what style of living do they want. Some people want to live in town because there is less traveling that has to be done. There are many more public events that take place in the city. Larger school systems can provide greater opportunities…
automobiles, but production had been shifted to help with the war efforts (jeeps, weapons, etc), pent up demand was created for the automobile.
Concentric Ring/Zone Model E.W. Burgess 1920
1920: Novelty Stage of Automobiles, cars had little impact on city development.
Not many ppl living in CBD district and low income residents live closest to CBD and the “Zone of Transition” (the area of the old industrial core)
Wealthiest people were the only ones who could afford living far from CBD.…
Recently, the interest in innovative development and the need for cities and countries to image
position or re-position have been accelerated. The major reason is significant for various
advantages domestically and internationally in economic, political, social and cultural
development terms (Kotler and Gertner, 2002). According to (Boult, 2014), holistically building a
place can attracts multiple and diverse stakeholders such as business, tourism, and citizens.
Trueman, Klemm and Giroud…
The City of Myra
The City of Myra is the ancient Greek capital of the Lycian Union, which was a geopolitical region in Southern Turkey during ancient times. The land above and around Myra is inhabited today, but is known as the city of Demre. Records of the inhabitation of Myra date back to 168 B.C. It is located on the South Western Coast of Turkey, on the river “Myros”. After 800 years as an important pilgrimage site, as well as a Christian and Lycian Capital, the City of Myra was buried under…
THE “FATHER” OF URBAN PLANNING
Hippodamus, a pioneer of many urban planning’s which he devised an epic ideal city that would be inhabited by 10,000 men (free male citizens) but the overall population including correspondent women, slaves and children would reach about 50,000 citizens. He read and studied the function problems of the city/s & linked them to a state administration system. He divided the citizens into three classes (artisans, soldiers & ‘husbandmen’), with land divided…