Spearman: General intelligence (g factor), specific intelligence (s factor). G factor is made out of eductive and reproductive ability.
Thurstone: Primary mental factors which are the unifying factor of certain mental operations (verbal comprehension, perceptual speed, reasoning, number, rote memory, word fluency, and spatial skills)
Guilford: Operations (Evaluation, convergent production, memory retention, memory recording, cognition) are general intellectual processes. Content (Visual, auditory, symbolic, semantic, behavioral) are broad areas of information humans apply processes to. Products are results of applying different operations to contents.
Vernon: Midway of Spearman’s and Thurstone’s theories because it has group factors as well as a G factor. Levels from G factor to Verbal/Educational and Spatial/Practical Mechanical to Vocabulary/ Number Skills and Psychomotor/ Spatial/ Physical then to S factors of intelligence
Cattell: Fluid and crystallized intelligence are factors of general intelligence. Fluid intelligence is the use of logic in novel situations and identify problems. Crystallized intelligence is using skills, knowledge, and experience. Fluid intelligence, like reaction time, peaks in early adulthood and decreases over time while crystallized intelligence increases over time.
Sternberg: Successful intelligence has three factors of componential/analytical (problem solving abilities: encode problem, infer relation, map relation, apply inferred relation), experiential/creative (ability to deal with new situations using past experience/ current skills), contextual/practical (adapt to changing environment) intelligence.
Gardener: 8 maybe 11 intelligences (verbal/linguistic, mathematic, spatial, music, body movement/ kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, naturalists, existential, spiritual, moral)
Stanford-Binet Intelligence scale: Mental Age, Chronological Age. Stern (IQ=MA/CA*100). Tests fluid reasoning, knowledge, quantitative reasoning, visual spatial reasoning, working memory. Deviation IQ: 68% of people within 1 standard deviation.
WISC: WPPSI-R (preschool and primary scale revised), WISC-IV (scale for children), WAIS-R (scale for adults). Indexes: verbal comprehension, perceptual reasoning, working memory, processing speed.
Stability of intelligence: middle adulthood correlates greatly but by age 3 there is a .45 correlation. High spurts and plateaus could result in low IQ stability. Twin/adoptive designs show same results that intellectual ability is genetically influenced. There is a genetic predisposition but environment can alter it within a range (reaction range).
-Social Class and IQ: behavior genetics explains differences within groups, not between groups
Heredity view: IQ differences in blacks and whites have genetic origin.
Test bias view:
Environmental view: Genetic predisposition which accounts for 80% of intelligence but environment can alter the rest to affect intelligence level
-Early intervention programs
Project Head Start: 1965, provide children with a year or two of preschool with nutritional and health services and parent involvement is key. Kids in program stayed ahead in real-life measures such as doing activities for their own pride. High/Scope Perry Preschool project showed that this lasted into adulthood. Poverty stricken schools dissipate work of head start program.
Early Head Start: 1995, 700 sites serving 63000 low income families with child care, educational experiences, parenting education, social support, and health care.
Carolina Abecedarian Project: 1970’s, 100 infants were put into control/treatment groups where treatment group received intensive child care experience in full time year-round child care and their advantage lasted till 21.
-Giftedness: creativity, producing something that is original yet appropriate
Divergent/convergent thinking: generating multiple/ selecting one resolution to problems. Tests of