Essay The Effectiveness of the Arab and Israeli Peace Initiatives

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The Effectiveness of the Arab and Israeli Peace Initiatives
No peace with Israel; no recognition of Israel; no negotiations with

Major concerns of Israelis (since 1948):

- security of the state

- refusal of the Arab states to acknowledge Israel's right to exist

There were significant developments between 1973 and 1979. Following the 1973 war, Israel realised it urgently needed to explore ways of achieving peace with its neighbours as the balance of power in the
Middle East had shifted in the direction of the Arabs.

The Arab-Israeli resolution has become important for international communities e.g. USA, Soviet Union. The Persian Gulf, oil region is critically important to the world economy - Europe imports 85% of its oil needs from the Persian Gulf states and Japan 90%. 1960s - 1970s SU attempted to extend and supplement its influence in the Gulf region.


December 1973 - national elections

Labour Party, led by Golda Meir and Moshe Dayan

The main opponent was the newly formed party Likud, led by Menachem
Begin - opposed the returning of any territory to Egypt, won 30% of votes. WEST BANK ISRAELI SETTLEMENTS

Israel captured the West Bank and Gaza Strip in the 6-day War.

1 million Arabs fell under Israel control.

ISSUES SURROUNDING THE WEST BANK AND GAZA, 1967-1977 (following 1967 war) Israeli Perspective

- Under Jordanian control (1948-1967) the Palestinians had been kept politically and socially divided in an effort to limit the growth of
Palestinian nationalism.

- After 1967 the West Bankeconomy and labour force were incorporated into the Israeli economy.

Palestinian Perspective

- Argue Israel continued a policy aimed at preventing growth of a collective Palestinian identity.

- Assert that Israel soon set out on the path of deliberately establishing Jewish military settlements in the Gaza Strip, Jordan
Valley and the Golan Heights

- Initially the Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza benefited economically but becoming part of the Israeli economy àhigh level of employment 98%


Established settlements outside the Arab population centres in the
Gaza Strip, policy was pursued by the ruling Labour Party and National
Religious Party. 1874 - Gush Emunim evoked religious and historical sentiments and called for the absorption of the West Bank as it was part of Eretz Yisrael, biblical Promised Land.

Chapter 9 - The Intifada, the impact of the Gulf War and Madrid

Key Historiographical Issues

- causes and consequences of the Intifada

- disagreement over the Palestinian Declaration of Independence

- impact of the Gulf War

Violence between Israel and the Palestinians escalated during the
1980s. In response to the demands of the ultra-nationalist and religious parties, Israel increased the number and size of settlements in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. By 1988 more than half the West Bank and a third of the Gaza Strip had been transferred to Jewish control.
Almost 100 000 Jews now lived in about fifteen metropolitan satellites around Tel Aviv and Jerusalem. Israeli Arabs were alienated and West
Bank and Gaza Palestinians disillusioned.

By the late 1980s, a whole generation of Palestinians (of whom 70% were under 25yrs old) had grown up under Israeli occupation. Their political future was uncertain, their civil rights limited and they lived in poverty - especially those in the refugee camps. In the West
Bank 10% of the residents lived in camps while the percentage in camps in the Gaza Strip was around 25%.

PLO attacks against Israeli settlers in the West Bank increased, but the settlements continued. Israel closed West Bank universities, imposed curfews and deported those they believed responsible for the unrest. Palestinians realise that the Arab states could or would not help them, the PLO was ineffectual and they would have to rely on their own efforts if they were to 'shake off'