Essay on the episode

Submitted By thbb
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Chapter 4 consciousness
1 Altered States of Consciousness- Change in awareness produced by sleep, meditation, hypnosis, or drugs.
2 Circadian rhythms - Within each 24-hour period, the regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behaviors.
3 Consciousness- Everything of which we are AWARE at any given time -- our thoughts, feelings, sensations, and perceptions of the external environment.
4 NREM Sleep : "quiet sleep"
4 sleep stages characterized by slow, regular respiration and heart rate, little body movement, and blood pressure and brain activity that are at their 24-hour low points.
5 stages of NREM lightest, Beta waves deepest, Dela Waves
6 REM sleep: "Active Sleep"
A type of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, paralysis, fast and irregular heart and respiration rates, increased brain-wave activity, and vivid dreams. release of epinepherine
Beta waves (as if awake)

7 psychoactive drugs - substances that alters mood, perception, or thought; called a CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE if approved for medicinal use.
8 controlled substance- psychoactive drugs that are approved for medical use.
9. substance abuse- continued use of a substance that affects an individual's work, education, and social relationships.
10 substance dependence- addiction/physical drug dependence compulsive pattern of drug use user develops a drug tolerance withdrawal symptoms when discontinued

11 drug tolerance- A condition in which the user becomes progressively less affected by the drug and must take increasingly larger doses to maintain the same effect or high.
12 Depressants- A category of drugs that decrease activity in the central nervous system, slow down bodily functions, and reduce sensitivity to outside stimulation, "DOWNERS".
Alcohol/ Barbiturates/ Minor Tranquilizers/ Narcotics

13 withdrawal symptoms - The physical and psychological symptoms that occur when a regularly used drug is discontinued and that terminate when the drug is taken again.
14 Withdrawl from depressants ( heroin-derived from morphine)- occurs 6-24 hours after use addict becomes physically sick Nausea, diarrhea, depression, stomach cramps, insomnia, and pain get worse & intolerable unless a person gets another "fix".

15 Stimulants- category of drugs that speeds up activity in the central nervous system, suppress appetite, and can cause a person to feel more AWAKE, alert, and energetic "Uppers"

16 withdrawal from stimulants - caffeine: nervousness, instability, headaches, drowsiness, and decreased alertness.
Amphetamines: physically exhausted, extremely depressed, intensely hungry.
Cocaine: inability to feel pleasure & the craving for more cocaine.

17 Physiological drug dependence- AKA: substance dependence/addiction results from the body's natural ability to protect itself against harmful substances by developing a drug tolerance.
18 psychological drug dependence- A craving or irresistible urge for a drug's pleasurable effects.
19 hypnosis- A procedure through which one person, the hypnotist, uses the power of suggestion to induce changes in thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, or behavior in another person, the subject.
20 Meditation- A group of techniques that involve focusing attention on an object, a word, one's breathing, or one's body movements in an effort to block out all distractions, to enhance well-being, and to achieve an altered state of consciousness.

Chapter 5 Learning
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another.
Ivan Pavlov organized & directed research in Russia: digestion: Nobel Prize 1904
Responsible for Classical Conditioning

3 unconditioned response (UCR) in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salvation when food is in the mouth

Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Any stimulus, such as