Essay on the episode

Submitted By thbb
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Chapter 4 consciousness
1 Altered States of Consciousness- Change in awareness produced by sleep, meditation, hypnosis, or drugs.
2 Circadian rhythms - Within each 24-hour period, the regular fluctuation from high to low points of certain bodily functions and behaviors.
3 Consciousness- Everything of which we are AWARE at any given time -- our thoughts, feelings, sensations, and perceptions of the external environment.
4 NREM Sleep : "quiet sleep"
4 sleep stages characterized by slow, regular respiration and heart rate, little body movement, and blood pressure and brain activity that are at their 24-hour low points.
5 stages of NREM lightest, Beta waves deepest, Dela Waves
6 REM sleep: "Active Sleep"
A type of sleep characterized by rapid eye movements, paralysis, fast and irregular heart and respiration rates, increased brain-wave activity, and vivid dreams. release of epinepherine
Beta waves (as if awake)

7 psychoactive drugs - substances that alters mood, perception, or thought; called a CONTROLLED SUBSTANCE if approved for medicinal use.
8 controlled substance- psychoactive drugs that are approved for medical use.
9. substance abuse- continued use of a substance that affects an individual's work, education, and social relationships.
10 substance dependence- addiction/physical drug dependence compulsive pattern of drug use user develops a drug tolerance withdrawal symptoms when discontinued

11 drug tolerance- A condition in which the user becomes progressively less affected by the drug and must take increasingly larger doses to maintain the same effect or high.
12 Depressants- A category of drugs that decrease activity in the central nervous system, slow down bodily functions, and reduce sensitivity to outside stimulation, "DOWNERS".
Alcohol/ Barbiturates/ Minor Tranquilizers/ Narcotics

13 withdrawal symptoms - The physical and psychological symptoms that occur when a regularly used drug is discontinued and that terminate when the drug is taken again.
14 Withdrawl from depressants ( heroin-derived from morphine)- occurs 6-24 hours after use addict becomes physically sick Nausea, diarrhea, depression, stomach cramps, insomnia, and pain get worse & intolerable unless a person gets another "fix".

15 Stimulants- category of drugs that speeds up activity in the central nervous system, suppress appetite, and can cause a person to feel more AWAKE, alert, and energetic "Uppers"

16 withdrawal from stimulants - caffeine: nervousness, instability, headaches, drowsiness, and decreased alertness.
Amphetamines: physically exhausted, extremely depressed, intensely hungry.
Cocaine: inability to feel pleasure & the craving for more cocaine.

17 Physiological drug dependence- AKA: substance dependence/addiction results from the body's natural ability to protect itself against harmful substances by developing a drug tolerance.
18 psychological drug dependence- A craving or irresistible urge for a drug's pleasurable effects.
19 hypnosis- A procedure through which one person, the hypnotist, uses the power of suggestion to induce changes in thoughts, feelings, sensations, perceptions, or behavior in another person, the subject.
20 Meditation- A group of techniques that involve focusing attention on an object, a word, one's breathing, or one's body movements in an effort to block out all distractions, to enhance well-being, and to achieve an altered state of consciousness.

Chapter 5 Learning
1
Classical Conditioning
A type of learning through which an organism learns to associate one stimulus with another.
2
Ivan Pavlov organized & directed research in Russia: digestion: Nobel Prize 1904
Dog/salivation
Responsible for Classical Conditioning

3 unconditioned response (UCR) in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occuring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salvation when food is in the mouth

4
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
Any stimulus, such as…