the essay

Submitted By Peterpan321
Words: 2465
Pages: 10


Idea of self fulfilling prophecy
Wether it occurs in everyday life is open to scientific studies
BUT Psycholgical research has demonstrated that in some areas this is

Possibillity that observers often have specific expectations that cause them to send covert and unintentional signals to a subject being studied
These signals then may cause the subject to respond in ways that are consistent with the observers bias and cinsequentlt confirm their exoectations
An experimenter might thiunk a certain behaviour may result from nothing more than the experimenter own biased expectations
If it occurs the expereiment is invalid
Also called the experimenter expectancy effect

Laboratory test with rats
Oustide lab in classroom because teachers might not be aware

Theoretical Propositions
Pygmalion Effect
Rosenthal labelled this expectancy effect outside lab
Greek sculptor ….find definition
Rosenthal suspected that when an elementary school teacher is provided with information (such as IQ scores) that creates certain expectancies about students' potential, whether strong or weak, the teacher might unknowingly behave in ways that subtly encourage or facilitate the performance of the students seen as more likely to succeed.
This, in turn, would create the self-fulfilling prophecy of actually causing those students to excel, perhaps at the expense of the students for whom lower expectations exist. an elementary school (called Oak School) in a predominantly lower middle-class neighborhood in a large town.


With the cooperation of the Oak School administration, all the students in grades one through six were given an IQ test (called the Tests of General Ability, or TOGA) near the beginning of the academic year. This test was chosen because it was a nonverbal test for which a student's score did not depend primarily upon school-learned skills of reading, writing, and arithmetic. Also, it was a test with which the teachers in Oak School probably would not be familiar. given the Harvard Test of Inflected Acquisition designed to serve as a predictor of academic blooming or spurting, teachers believed that students, who scored high on the test were ready to enter a period of increased learning abilities within the next year. not true. three classes at each of the six grade levels. All of the 18 teachers (16 women, 2 men) for these classes were given a list of names of students in their classes who had scored in the top 20% on the
Harvard Test and were therefore identified as potential academic bloomers during the academic year. But here's the key to this study: The children on the teachers' top 10 lists had been assigned to this experimental condition purely at random.
Near the end of the school year, all children at the school were measured again with the same test (the TOGA), and the degree of change in IQ was calculated for each child. The differences in IQ changes between the experimental group and the controls could then be examined to see if the expectancy effect had been created in a real-world setting. Results
Figure 1

Figure 2


What You Expect Is What You Get (Rosenthal & Jacobson)

Title of Research: What You Expect is What You Get
Date of Study: 1966
Name of Researcher: Rosenthal, R & Jacobson L
Theoretical Propositions: When an elementary school teacher is given information such as IQ scores, it creates expectations about that student, leading to unnoticeable behaviors that either encourage or facilitate the performance of the student.
Oack School staff & students
IQ test

Subjects: students in Oak Elementary

Students and teachers were told they were taking the Harvard Test of Inflected Acquisition, in order to create expectancies, something vital for this experiment. All 18 teachers were given a list of students who made