This week you will be covering Chapters 11 – 14. Please answer the following questions/activities thoroughly in order to receive credit.
Chapter 11 1. List 3 different ways to conduct a task analysis
Three different ways to conduct a task analysis is as follows: * Observe a competent person engage in the task. * Ask an expert (a person who performs the task well. * Perform the task yourself and record each of the component responses.
2. You need to train a developmentally disabled individual to fold towels for his new job at the Ramada. He will stand at a table with a pile of unfolded towels on his left, pick up a towel, fold it in half twice and place the folded towel on another table to his right. a. What is the 1st step you would train in a backward chaining procedure?
The first step in a backward chaining procedure that you would teach is step number five. To start this procedure you would present the last discriminative stimulus, prompt the correct response, and provide a reinforce. (Discriminative stimulus 5 + prompt R5 reinforcer)
b. What is the 1st step you would train in a forward chaining procedure? Tell my why on both instances.
Forward chaining is similar to backward chaining in that you teach one component of the chain at a time. To use forward chaining, you present the first discriminative stimulus, prompt the correct response, and provide a reinforcer after the response. (Discriminative stimulus 1 + prompt R1 reinforcer)
3. Provide an example of how you would use self-instructions to guide your behavior in an everyday situation.
One way I would use self-instruction to guide my behavior in an everyday situation would be to have pictures of each step in order from beginning to finish. So, if I had to mail out brochures for a company I would have in a binder pictures of the steps that I need to do first getting the envelope, then the brochures that would go in the envelope in order and putting the brochures in the envelope, next sealing the envelope, and last putting the sealed envelope in the box with the finish envelopes in it. 4. What is a behavioral chain? Provide an example.
A behavioral chain is a complex behavior consisting of many component behaviors that occur together in a sequence. For example, you want a piece of candy. To get the candy you have to engage in a sequence of responses, you would perform the following actions: 1. Reach into your pocket, 2. Pull out the piece of candy, 3. Unwrap the candy and, 4. Put the candy into your mouth.
5. Provide an example of the use of textual prompts and picture prompts
Textual prompts also known as written task analysis are for people with the ability to read. An example of a textual prompt is teaching young adults with mild mental disabilities and learning disabilities to clean household appliances such as a stove or refrigerator. You would give the learners a detailed list of all the steps involved in the tasks. The learners will use the list to guide their behavior of cleaning the appliances, when they are done if they have done a good job the you would praise them but if they missed a step you praise them for what they got right and corrective feedback on how to improve the errors they made.
Picture prompts are when you take pictures of the outcome of each behavior or of someone engaging in each behavior in the task. An example of picture prompts is you can take pictures to teach adolescents with severe disabilities how to fold laundry. You would take pictures of each step; place the task pictures into a notebook in order from what to do first and so on and so on. For example, Peter works in a cleaners folding towels when they are dry. Peter has a serious disability so his manager has taken pictures of each step in order from first to last in a binder for Peter. At the beginning of each day, Peter gets the binder turns to the first step