The Four Basic Levels of Measurement Essay

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Test 2 Study Guide – Chapters 9, 10, 5, 6, & 7
Note: Most questions are drawn from Chapters 9 and 10
 Nominal, ordinal, interval, & ratio data

Measuring consumer attributes o Attitudes toward a brand o Perceptions of a product o Number of times you work out per week o Height or how much you weigh
Measurement process o Assigning numbers or labels to persons, objects, or events in accordance with specific rules for representing quantities or qualities of attributes.
o Degree to which what the researcher was trying to measure was actually measured.
Face validity o Judgment call – does it seem to measure topic?
o Degree to which measures are free from random error and, therefore, provide consistent data. The extent to which the survey responses are internally consistent. o - If we collect data 3 different times, how similar would our data be?
o Lack of change in results from test to retest.
Functional equivalence o Ability of two very similar forms of an instrument to produce closely correlated results.
Itemized rating scales o Measurement scales in which the respondent selects an answer from a limited number of ordered categories.

Graphic rating scales o Measurement scales that include graphic continuum, anchored by two extremes.
Rank-order scales o Rank from 1-6, 1 being best and 6 being the worst
Paired comparison scales o Measurement scales that ask the respondent to pcik one of two objects in a set, based on some stated criteria.
Semantic differential scales o Measurement scales that examine the strengths and weaknesses of a concept by having the respondent rank it between dichotomous pairs of words or phrases that could be used to describe it; the means of the responses are then plotted as a profile, or image.
Stapel scales o Measurement scales that require the respondent to rate, on a scale ranging from +5 to 5, how closely and in what direction a descriptor adjective fits a given concept.
Likert scales o Strongly agree-Strongly disagree
Constant sum scales o Measurement scales that ask the respondent to divide a given number of points, typically 100, among two or more attributes, based on their importance to him or her.
Purchase intent scales o Scales used to measure a respondent’s intention to buy or not buy a product. o Example:

Operational definition
Test-retest reliability o The ability of the same instrument to produce consistent results when used a second time under conditions as similar as possible to the original conditions
Open ended questions o Questions to which the respondent replies in his or her own words. o Often used first as basis for final questionnaire/survey

Coding o Process of grouping and assigning numeric codes to the various responses to a question.
Dichotomous questions o Choice is between two answers. A close ended question.
Closed ended questions o Questions requiring respondents to choose from a list of answers. o Dichotomous: o Multiple Choice: Choice is among three or more options. o Scaled Responses: Designed to capture the intensity of respondent’s feelings.
Screening questions o Questions used to identify appropriate respondents.
o General/broad to specific
Scaled response questions o Designed to capture the intensity of respondent’s feelings. A close ended question.
Questionnaire layout o Guidelines: o Effective (Informative) Introduction o Screening Questions (if necessary) o Generate interest and/or easy questions first o Questions that require “thinking” should follow o Use encouraging “prompters” (“only a few more Qs,” etc.) o Sensitive, threatening, and demographic questions should be at end o Differentiate INSTRUCTIONS/questions o Thank you/closing
Question clarity o Avoid ambiguous terminology, use reasonable, vernacular language