1. Dwight Eisenhower: Commanded Allied forces in World War II: won election of 1952: delegated authority as president.
2. Richard Nixon: Used campaign funds for personal use: almost was removed from election: persuaded public in debates: Eisenhower's running mate in 1952.
3. Modern Republicans: Focused on a balanced budget: accepted and extended new deal programs: moderate views on national care plans.
4. Oveta Culp Hobby: Head of Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) (founded 1953): first women in Republican cabinet.
5. Soil-bank program: Reduced farm production, which increased farm income.
6. Highway Act (1956); Interstate highway system: Interstate highway system: Authorized construction of 42,000 miles of interstate highways linking major cities: created jobs, promoted trucking industry, accelerated the growth of the suburbs, and unified culture: hurt railroads and environment.
7. John Foster Dulles; “Brinksmanship”: brinkmanship": Eisenhower's Secretary of State: proposed "brinkmanship": push Communist powers to brink of war to force them to back down.
8. Massive Retaliation: Greater reliance on nuclear weapons and air power and spending less on conventional forces. Used nuclear weapons as a deterrent.
9. Third World: Countries that recently gained their independence, and weren't industrialized or politically/economically stable.
10. Iran: An oil rich Middle Eastern country: CIA overthrew government and installed Reza Pahlavi, a foreign oil friendly dictator.
11. Covert Action: Undercover intervention in foreign nations by the CIA and US troops.
12. Indochina: A French colony lost to Japan in World War II, where the French tried to take it back: US supplies were sent, but troops were refused: France surrendered.
13. Geneva Conference: Conference held in 1954, where France surrendered Indochina, and it was broken into Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam.
14. Ho Chi Minh: A Vietnamese nationalist and Communist leader who gained power in 1954: formed a Communist dictatorship in North Vietnam.
15. Vietnam: Divided into North and South Vietnam: North is Communist dictatorship: South is democratic: election for united leader never held.
16. Domino Theory: Theory that if one nation in Southeast Asia became Communist, it would spread throughout all of them.
17. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (1954): A regional defense pact signed by the US, Great Britain, France, Australia, New Zealand, the Philippines, Thailand, and Pakistan: agreed to protect each other's asset in Southeast Asia.
18. Suez Canal Crisis (1956): Nasser of Egypt seized and nationalized the British and French owned Suez Canal. In response, Britain, France, and Israel carried out a surprise attack against Egypt and retook it. This infuriated Eisenhower. Britain and France would never gain play role of major power in world affairs.
19. Eisenhower Doctrine: Announcement in 1957 that the US would pledge economic and military aid to any Middle Eastern country threatened by Communism.
20. Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC): Created in 1960 by Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Iran, Iraq, and Venezuela.
21. “Spirit of Geneva”: A general atmosphere of both Soviets and Americans wanting peaceful relations after the Geneva Convention.
22. Open-Skies Crisis: A conflict between the United States over the proposal to allow aerial surveillance in both countries to prevent a surprise nuclear attack.
23. Nikita Khrushchev: The leader of the Soviet Union after Stalin, who wanted a more peaceful relationship with the West.
24. Peaceful Coexistence: The idea that both the Soviets and the Americans could coexist peacefully, with neither ideology attempting to undermine the other.
25. Hungarian Revolt: A revolt in Hungary that replaced the Soviet government with a liberal government: wanted to leave Warsaw pact: Soviets sent tanks to crush rebellion: Eisenhower didn't send help.
26. Warsaw Pact: The