The Groel-Groes System

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Protein assem bly is regulated by specialised proteins known as chaperones, wh ich function to support the folding process of proteins (Hoffmann, Linke, Grat:Lilie & Jakob, 2004). The GroEL-GroES system of bacteria will be used to demonstrate how chaperones act to fold proteins into their native state. The system contains GroEL and GroES, two protein domains that act cooperatively to aid protein folding.
Firstly, GroEL takes up the non-native protein and through conforma tion change catalysed by ATP binding, activates GroES to bind to GroEL (Hartl, Bracher & Hayer­ Hartl, 2011). This encapsulates the protein and isolates it from the external environment such that the folding process can occur undisturbed (Hartl, Bracher & Hayer-Ha rtl, 2011).