The Guilt Complex Guilt is a universal concept. The acceptance of responsibility for a wrongdoing and the sense that one has lowered their standard of conduct that accompanies this emotion is shared by every human within the normal confines of society, at one point in their lives or another. The idea that fate, rather than freewill, controls the lives of humans is another (hotly debated) universal, and the most timeless story is one which absorbs the universals of the human experience, and seeks to examine and explain them. It is at this junction that Oedipus Rex, a play written by Sophocles and set in Thebes, is found. The characters within struggle against, and ultimately fail to prevent, a prophecy which proclaims that Oedipus will be his father’s killer and his mother’s lover. In the end, the most powerful figures in the play are left broken or dead, but undeniably wracked with the burden of their moral perversion. The guilt felt by Oedipus and his mother in the play is a direct result of their failure to realize that their freewill, and thus their ability to make decisions about the outcome of their lives, is insignificant in the face of their fate. Fate was the ruling factor in Oedipus’ life. The horrifying prophecy was self-fulfilling, and by its existence and the natures of Oedipus and his parents, ensured its fruition. The audience, given the holistic and beneficial advantage of the third party, is able to understand the overwhelming leverage fate has as a determining force in the characters’ lives with respect to free will. The very fact that Oedipus was given to the herdsmen at birth instead of raised with his natural parents, and that rather than die in the mountains as his father had intended, he lived, raised by a different king, and fled back to his home upon hearing of the prophecy, in fear of fulfilling it, and in the process doing just that, shows the extent that the characters’ exercise of their own free will contributed to the control fate exerted in their lives. This was the underlying truth of Thebes. But this truth was not to be realized by any of the characters of Oedipus Rex. The great irony, of course, was that, had one character understood their place in the happenings of the world, and how little power they had to change the course of their lives, the entire prophecy would have fallen to pieces, unfulfilled. Jocasta and Laius (Oedipus’ birth parents) could have raised their son in peace, without turmoil. Even later on, Oedipus, upon learning of the prophecy, could have stayed in his neighboring kingdom, doing nothing, and could have also subverted the cursed words. The stubborn belief that the free will of each character could change their fate brought them significant misery. But more so, because each believed so strongly that they had control over their own destiny through the decisions they made out of free will, the characters in the play are forced to accept a responsibility in a horrendous act over which they, in reality, had very little control. This acceptance of culpability, coupled with the nature of the moral offense committed, brings on a crippling guilt for both Oedipus and Jocasta. The physical manifestations of both Oedipus’ and Jocasta’s guilt are gruesome and permanent. Jocasta hangs herself after learning that her son, her husband, and the father to her children are all the same person. Oedipus, upon seeing the woman who is his mother, mother to his children, and his lover, hanging lifeless, promptly gauges his eyes out of his sockets. These guilt manifestations are symbolic
major roles in the play. Each character is unique in their own way because of enormous
amount of characterization each individual contain. Almost every character in Macbeth
are fully developed because of their complexity and importance. The most interesting
and complex character of Macbeth would be the main character’s wife Lady Macbeth
because without her decision making, there wouldn’t be the essential conflict within the
“Lady Macbeth is a femme fatal. She has more ambition over her powerful
castration complexes, as well as cognitive motor skills that accompany playfulness (Feist, J & Feist, G.J., 2009, pp. 254-255). The two conflicting ideals of this period are the initiative of trying new things and aiming for new goals, as well as the guilt of attempting to reach these goals…
Brave New World
In Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, Huxley chose John to lean on two religions to show that John is a complex character by how conflicted he is. Shakespeare was John’s reading material to show the significance of literature from the past and John went to a lighthouse because the lighthouse represented his purification from the repulsive morals of the society.
John himself stated that God is "a reason for self-denial.” Basically, John believed in the soul. He was concerned with…
Macbeth’s and Lady Macbeth’s guilt, and Shakespeare uses the blood to illustrate their fear after the murder. After Macbeth kills Duncan, he starts to feel the guilt from the murder, he said:” Will all great Neptune's ocean wash this blood /Clean from my hand? No, this my hand will rather/The multitudinous seas incarnadine, / Making the green one red. (2.2.77-80)” The blood of Duncan in his hand symbolizes the guilt he has gained after the murder, and the overwhelming sense of guilt and fear is expressed…
Manifesting guilt in the tragedy of Macbeth
According to The Dictionary of Psychology, guilt is defined as an emotional state produced by the knowledge that one has violated moral standards. Most authorities recognized an emotional state as guilt only when the individual has internalized the moral standards of the society (thus it is distinguished from simple fear of punishment from external source). Based on this definition guilt is a powerful feeling of remorse that haunts the conscience, is…
Tracing the Word “Blood” in Macbeth Act 2
a. Quotation and Speaker Macbeth: I see thee still/ Find on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood.
b. Paraphrase and Clarification I can still see the spots of blood on this blade. Macbeth is hallucinating, the blood isn’t really there.
c. Conclusions Macbeth sees blood on the blade as a sign that he must commit the murder, the evil act. Evil is represented by the presence of blood.
About sex and aggression
3 Personalities of Sigmund Freud Complex concept model
1. Id- source of motivation anger, hunger, aggression, in a biological since. Not rational not realistic tolerate inconsistencies; Operates by primary process the id only wants to experience the idea. Does not interact with the reality. Instant. Become aware of a feeling. Source of the impulse and if it comes conscious. ID- means “it” in German. Unconscious as an impulse. It doesn’t…
relationships in the advent of their deaths. However both take different narrative approaches and are at different stages of reconciliation of their emotions.
In both comics, it is clear to us from the first interaction that father and child have a complex relationship. In Maus, it is very directly expressed in the first panel of Volume 1 when Art narrates, “I went out to see my Father in Rego Park. I hadn’t seen him in a long time – we weren’t that close.” (Spiegelman 1:1) The image however, contrastingly…
against Claudius. Hamlet tells Horatio that "Come, some music! Come, the recorders!/ For if the King like not the comedy,/ Why then belike he likes it not, perdy" (3.2.276-279).
After this scene in the play, Hamlet is convinced of Claudius' guilt, but his own guilt prevents him from completely eliminating his uncle. Hamlet is still trying to "repress" his own sexual desires. It could be construed that Claudius manifests all of Hamlet's passions and emotions. If Claudius is killed, then Hamlet must…
Theories & Approaches to Counselling
Week 2: Psychodynamic Approaches to Counselling
There are four factors that account for the process of change within an individual:
15% Placebo effect
40% Personality i.e. resources, agency (personal impetus), previous experiences, environmental factors, family, culture
30% therapeutic relationship
Therapist should be neutral with client and provide them with the ‘tools’ for them to make an inner change