“Mathematics”, in definition, is the study of relationships among quantities, magnitudes and properties, and also of the logical operations by which unknown quantities, magnitudes, and properties may be deduced. It has been in use nearly since the dawn of man, with evidence of counting beginning around 50,000 B.C.E. Mathematics has since become fundamental to various studies such as science, engineering and philosophy.
The Discovery & Cultivation of Mathematics
Numerous Mathematicians can be attributed to the “discovery of math” especially in their respective fields, however, we have one man in particular to thank for deductive Geometry. Thales of Miletus is credited to have created the five theorems of Geometry in 585 B.C.E. These theorems were:
I. A circle is bisected by any diameter.
II. The base angles of an isosceles triangle are equal. (Hey we learned this in class!!)
III. The angles between two intersecting straight lines are equal.
IV. Two triangles are congruent if they have two angles and one side equal. (AAS!!)
V. An angle in a semicircle is a right angle.
Arithmetic was soon discovered after deductive Geometry in 250 C.E. It was fathered by Diophantus. His book, Arithmetica, consisted of solutions to Algebraic equations and the “theory of numbers”. Diophantus also attributed to the discovery of Algebra.
In 830 C.E., an Arabic Mathematician named Al-Khowarizmi compiled a textbook titled Hisab al-jabr w’al muqabala. This textbook became the standard Algebra students.
A plus and minus was first used in Germany by Johannes Widmann in 1489.