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Abbreviated title (ISO 4)
American Association for the Advancement of Science (United States)
1880–present (3 series of volumes)
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is theacademic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and is one of the world's top scientific journals.
The peer-reviewed journal, first published in 1880, is circulated weekly and has a print subscriber base of around 130,000. Because institutional subscriptions and online access serve a larger audience, its estimated readership is one million people.
The major focus of the journal is publishing important original scientific research and research reviews, but Science also publishes science-related news, opinions on science policy and other matters of interest to scientists and others who are concerned with the wide implications of science and technology. Unlike most scientific journals, which focus on a specific field,Science and its rival Nature cover the full range of scientific disciplines. According to the Journal Citation Reports,Science's 2012 impact factor was 31.027.
Although it is the journal of the AAAS, membership in the AAAS is not required to publish in Science. Papers are accepted from authors around the world. Competition to publish in Science is very intense, as an article published in such a highly cited journal can lead to attention and career advancement for the authors. Fewer than 10% of articles submitted to the editors are accepted for publication and all research articles are subject to peer review before they appear in the journal.
Science is based in Washington, D.C., United States, with a second office in Cambridge, England.
3 See also
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Issue from February–June 1883
Science was founded by New York journalist John Michaels in 1880 with financial support fromThomas Edison and later from Alexander Graham Bell. However, the magazine never gained enough subscribers to succeed and ended publication in March 1882. Entomologist Samuel H. Scudder resurrected the journal one year later and had some success while covering the meetings of prominent American scientific societies, including the AAAS. However, by 1894,Science was again in financial difficulty and was sold to psychologist James McKeen Cattell for $500.
In an agreement worked out by Cattell and AAAS secretary Leland O. Howard, Science became the journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science in 1900. During the early part of the 20th century important articles published inScience included papers on fruit fly genetics by Thomas Hunt Morgan, gravitational lensing by Albert Einstein, and spiral nebulae by Edwin Hubble. After Cattell died in 1944, the ownership of the journal was transferred to the AAAS.
After Cattell's death, the magazine lacked a consistent editorial presence until Graham DuShane became editor in 1956. In 1958, under DuShane's leadership, Science absorbed The Scientific Monthly, thus increasing the journal's circulation by over 60% from 38,000 to more than 61,000. Physicist Philip Abelson, a co-discoverer of neptunium, served as editor from 1962 to 1984. Under Abelson the efficiency