The Industrial Revolutions:
The term 'industrial revolution' was used to describe the period by the 1830s, but modern historians increasingly call this period the 'first industrial revolution', characterized by developments in textiles, iron and steam led by Britain, to differentiate it from a 'second' revolution of the 1850s onwards, characterized by steel, electrics and automobiles led by the US and Germany.
Causes of the Industrial Revolution:
The end of feudalism changes economic relationships.
Higher population because of less disease and lower infant mortality allowed for a larger industrial workforce.
The agricultural revolution frees people from the soil, allowing – or driving – them into cities and manufacturing.
Proportionally large amounts of spare capital for investment
Inventions and the scientific revolution allowing for new technology
Colonial trade networks
The presence of all the required resources close together
Culture of hard work, taking risks and developing ideas
What Changed –