Donna L. Moritz
Buena Vista University
• “There ought to be no difference between raping a child and paying to rape a child, and yet there is.” Malika
Saada Saar, Human Rights
Project for Girls.
• At least 100,000 American children are trafficked for sex each year (Cornyn, J. 2015,
Human Sex Trafficking
• The United States Trafficking Victims
Protection Act of 2000 (TVPA) defines sex trafficking as: “the recruitment, harboring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for the purposes of a commercial sex act, in which the commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such an act has not attained 18 years of age”…
• In 2014 human trafficking was reported in ALL
50 States of America (Cornyn, J. 2015, March 10)
• Since December 7, 2007 through March 31,
2015, there have been a total of 13,481 cases of human trafficking.
• In 2014 there were a total of 3,598 cases.
• As of March 31, 2015 there were 973 cases reported Myths and Misconceptions
• Myth 1: Trafficked persons can only be foreign nationals or are only immigrants from other countries. • Reality: The federal definition of human trafficking includes both U.S citizens and foreign nationals. Human trafficking within the
United States affects victims who are U.S. citizens, lawful permanent residents, visa holders, and undocumented workers.
Myths and Misconceptions
• Myth 4: There must be elements of physical restraint, physical force, or physical bondage when identifying a human trafficking situation.
• Reality: Trafficking does no require physical restraint, bodily harm, or physical force.
Psychological means of control, such as threats or fraud, are sufficient elements of the crime. Myths and Misconceptions
• Myth 8: Human trafficking only occurs in illegal underground industries.
• Reality: Trafficking can occur in legal and legitimate business markets such as restaurants, hotels, and manufacturing plants.
As well as underground markets such as commercial sex in residential brothels and street based commercial sex.
Effects of Human Trafficking
• Anyone who is a victim of trafficking suffers violations of their human rights:
• Right to liberty
• Right to dignity and security of person
• Right not to be held in slavery or involuntary bondage • Right to be free from cruel and inhumane treatment • Right to health care
• Right to be free from violence
Available data suggest several areas of concern: Violence, access to health care, & substance abuse… • A victim can experience consequences of psychological, physical and sexual violence.
• Many experience psychological violence such as depression, suicidal thoughts and attempts.
• Physical injuries include bruises, broken bones, head wounds, stab wounds, mouth and teeth injuries, and even death.
Access to Health Care
• Fear of detection and deportation can leave undocumented women reluctant to access social services.
• In some situations, women may not be able to afford care or may not be allowed to seek health care.
• Pregnancy and forced or unsafe abortions are primary health concerns.
• Many women and children in the sex industry use drugs and/or alcohol as a coping mechanism. • Both voluntary and forced use commonly lead to addiction.
• The FBI field offices continue to produce threat assessments to determine the nature and extent of human trafficking in their areas, as well as conduct aggressive human trafficking investigations and develop actionable intelligence for future potential cases. • The FBI is working to build relationships with civic and community groups and non-governmental organizations that can refer cases and provide valuable insights and information.
• Since 2009,…