Achaemenid [uh-KEY-muh-nid] Dynasty = the first dynasty in the Persian empire, which came to power in the 7th century B.C.E.
Akhenaton [ak-hen-AH-ten] = The New Kingdon Pharaoh who declared the Aten, or sun disc, to be the only god; during Akhenaton’s rule, worship of any other gods or goddesses was prohibited.
Alexander the Great = a Greek ruler who conquered most of the known world, including Mesopotamia and Egypt, during the late fourth century B.C.E.
Almanacs = a Babylonian invention that helped prepare for changing seasons, much like a calendar.
Amenemhat [ah-MEN-en-maht] = the Pharaoh who successfully reunited Egypt at the start of the Middle Kingdom in 2040 B.C.E.
Aramaic [air-uh-MAY-ik] = the Assyrian writing system, which was based on the Sumerian cuneiforms.
Assyrians [ah-SEER-ee-uhnz] = the second civilization to settle in Mesopotamia; lived in northern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 612 B.C.E.
Aten = one of the Egyptian sun gods, the Aten represented the sun disc itself.
Babylonians [bah-buh-LOAN-ee-uhnz] = an ancient civilization that conquered the Sumerians and ruled a vast empire between 1900 and 539 B.C.E.
Chariot = a two-wheeled vehicle pulled by horses that was used in war.
City-states = individual cities which held control of their own city and the surrounding area, but not over other city-states.
Crete [KREET] = an island off the southeastern coast of Greece that was home to the Minoan civilization.
Cuneiform [KYOO-nee-uh-form] = a system of writing, based on arrangements of wedge-shaped figures, developed by the Sumerians and later used by the Babylonians, Assyrians, and Persians.
Darius [DAH-ree-us] = Persian leader who established a standardized system of weights and measures, as well as a system of banking and money.
Deity [DEE-uh-tee] = a god or goddess.
Domesticate = an animal that has been trained to be of use for humans, often for use in agriculture, transportation, or food.
Gilgamesh [GILL-gah-mesh] = a Sumerian king whose heroic story is told in the Epic of Gilgamesh, the oldest written story in history.
Hammurabi [hah-muh-RAH-bee] = leader of the Babylonian empire from 1792 to 1750 B.C.E.
Hieroglyphics [high-ruh-GLI-fics] = the Egyptian system of writing based on pictures; each picture represented a common object.
Hyksos [HIK-sohs] = a group of Asian invaders who controlled Egypt between 1640 and 1540 B.C.E., at the end of the Middle Kingdom.
Ivory = a valuable material made from elephant tusks that was often used in jewelry or other luxury items.
King Minos [MY-nuhs] = a king whose name was used for the name of the Minoan civilization.
Menes [MEE-neez] = the first Egyptian Pharaoh, he ruled around 3100 B.C.E.
Minoans [mi-NO-uhnz] = an early civilization that lived on the island of Crete between 3100 and 1420 B.C.E. before being conquered by the Mycenaeans.
Monotheistic [mah-no-thee-ISS-tik] = a religious system where only a single deity is worshipped; the first monotheistic religion is thought to have been created by Pharaoh Akhenaton of Egypt.
Mosaic [moe-ZAY-ik] = an art from which uses small tiles or stones of different colors arranged to create a picture.
Mummification = a process for treating dead bodies, developed by the Egyptians, so that they would be preserved in the afterlife.
Mycenaeans [my-sun-NEE-uhns] = a civilization that developed on the Greek mainland around 1600 B.C.E. and eventually conquered the Minoan civilization, it fell around 1100 B.C.E. for unknown reasons.
Nebuchadnezzar [ne-buh-kud-NEZ-zar] I = great Babylonian king who led the empire to its highest power in the 11th century B.C.E.
Nebuchadnezzar [ne-buh-kud-NEZ-zar] II = the Babylonian king