General APA Guidelines
Your essay should be typed, double-spaced on standard-sized paper (8.5" x 11") with 1" margins on all sides. You should use 10-12 pt. Times New Roman font or a similar font.
Include a page header in the upper right-hand of every page. To create a page header, type the first 2-3 words of the title of the paper, insert five spaces, then give the page number.
Major Paper Sections
Your essay should include four major sections: the Title Page, Abstract, Main Body, and References.
Your title page should already include the page header (described above). On the first line of the title page flush-left, add a running head. Begin the running head with the words “Running Head” followed by a colon. Then give an abbreviated title of your paper in 50 characters or less in all caps. Note: Remember that the page header will appear on every page of your paper, whereas the running head will only appear on your title page.
In the upper half of the title page, type your full title, your byline (name[s]), and affiliation (university, etc.) centered on separate lines. Your title may take up one or two lines as in the example below:
Image Caption: APA Title Page
Begin a new page. Your abstract page should already include the page header (described above). On the first line of the abstract page, center the word “Abstract” (otherwise unformatted, no bold, italics, underlining, or quotation marks).
Beginning with the next line, write a concise summary of the key points of your research. (Do not indent.) The abstract should be a single paragraph double-spaced of less than 120 words.
Image Caption: Sample APA Abstract
Please see our Additional Resources page for examples of APA papers.
Cite the Purdue OWL in APA:
Purdue University Online Writing Lab (OWL) (Last edited date available in the gray box at the top of the resource). Title of resource. Retrieved month day, year, from http://Web address for OWL resource.
2. In-Text Citations: The Basics
Reference citations in text are covered on pages 207-214 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay.
Note: APA style requires authors to use the past tense or present perfect tense when using signal phrases to describe earlier research. E.g., Jones (1998) found or Jones (1998) has found...
APA Citation Basics
When using APA format, follow the author-date method of in-text citation. This means that the author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text, E.g., (Jones, 1998), and a complete reference should appear in the reference list at the end of the paper.
If you are referring to an idea from another work but NOT directly quoting the material, or making reference to an entire book, article or other work, you only have to make reference to the author and year of publication in your in-text reference.
In-Text Citation Capitalization, Quotes, and Italics/Underlining
Always capitalize proper nouns, including author names and initials: D. Jones.
If you refer to the title of a source within your paper, capitalize all words that are four letters long or greater within the title of a source: Permanence and Change. Exceptions apply to short words that are verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and adverbs: Writing New Media, There Is Nothing Left to Lose.
(Note: in your References list, only the first word of a title will be capitalized: Writing new media.)
When capitalizing titles, capitalize both words in a hyphenated compound word: Natural-Born Cyborgs.
Capitalize the first word after a dash or colon: "Defining Film Rhetoric: The Case of Hitchcock's Vertigo."
Italicize or underline the titles of longer works such as books, edited collections, movies, television series, documentaries, or albums: The Closing of the American Mind; The Wizard of Oz; Friends.
Put quotation marks around the titles of shorter works