John Visconti The Rise of Totalitarianism in Italy
After a world war I Germany, Italy, and the Soviet Union saw the rise of Totalitarian governments. Totalitarianism is a system of government in which a leader (Dictator) has complete and utter control over the country and the lives of its people. Totalitarianism was become more popular in the 19th century; the rulers liked the one ruling party, and had control over pretty much anything and everything. The strict government control of all aspects of: life, business, religion, arts, and even education, they limited the freedom of speech, religion, and press. During the 19th century Italy was ruled by Leader Benito Mussolini, he ruled from 1922 through 1943. The government party was a Fascist party, which was founded by Mussolini. Mussolini’s political goals were to make Italy a more powerful nation for his people. He wanted to fix the economy, restore order, and he supported the Catholic Church.
Immediately following the war Italy was governed by Giovanni Giolitti, a progressive Liberal, and then in 1922 Benito Mussolini was appointed the King of Rome. While this was happening, Germany was in the rule of extreme nationalist entitled Adolf Hitler. Who was implementing his own designs of a Fascist Government. Hitler disgraced individuals who were Black, Poles, Homosexuals, Jews, and many more. If you fell into any of these groups, you were seen as less inferior and were put into camps. Political development was happening all around the world after World War I. In France, inflation was hitting people of different classes, lower and workers, as they were trying to pay the United States. They were building Maginot lines, so invasions were not permitted. In the 1930’s, even though wages and work conditions were improving, the inflation persisted. While in Great Britain they remained a socially and politically conservative rule.
Causes of World War II
The Great Depression affected many different countries but in different ways. The economic recession was experienced by many countries at the end of the 1920’s. Even though Italy was on a lower degree of the industrial development, they were also affected by the Great Depression. Italy was affected the same way as more industrialized countries. The many that were affected by the Great Depression saw a decline in international trade fall in hours worked; there was still a decrease in production as well as a significant fall in investments. Other countries such as England, France, and the United States were being affected in the same ways. While the Great Depression was part of the coming of World War II, it annihilated the economies of Europe and the United States; fascism contributed to the coming as well. Fascism was an ideology that glorified the military; criticized international organizations and cooperation and considered war an acceptable means for achieving national goals. Hitler's Germany and Mussolini's Italy adopted aggressive foreign policies involving war as an intended, even desirable method.
Holocaust in light of Western Ideals
Anti-Semitism is a “persisting latent structure of hostile beliefs towards Jews as a collective manifested in individuals as attitudes and culture as myth, ideology, folklore and imagery ("Discover The Networks", 2005).” During the time after the War anti-Semitism played a significant part in Mussolini’s political career. It was no secret that Mussolini wanted to destroy the Jews, and he vowed to kill them all. He carried on the same desire that Adolf Hitler had, wanting them to destroy and even went as far as to say that Hitler was a “softy”. While Mussolini was the leader in Italy, he published a manifesto on July 14, 1938. Manifesto of Race wasa set of laws in Italy; the laws stripped the Jews of citizenship and took away jobs of the Jews that working in the Government.
After the war was over, the Germans came up with