The Russian Land Midterm ID Study Guide Essay

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xtRussian Land Midterm ID Study Guide
Hello all my Study Buds, I just want to let you know what we are looking for when we write these short answer IDs.
1. What is it?
2. Why is it important?
3. How does it relate to the course?
Think about how each ID relates to one another. What was the historical succession?
Remember to be DESCRIPTIVE and don’t let it be too general. Thank you guys! ­ Grant *steppe­ Could not farm on this land, depend on herding for survival. The Mongols were the only people that could pass through the steppe by using horses. The steppe was seen as a land of death. *Slash and Burn Farming­ The method of farming used in Kievan Rus era and before, this is where the forest is cut down then burned to create a layer of fertile top soil to farm on. It is important because this is an incredibly unsustainable source of farming, but also lead to little groups that would create a hamlet together and work the land until it was no longer fertile, and then the group would move on. This is how the small close knit communities began. *Kievan Rus­ 800’s, first city state, influenced from Constantinople, egalitarian, ability to trade.
It was a very wealthy place. Had the most people who could read and write (even women) *Kiev succession­ princes and grand prince, princes were decent of Rurik through vikings, to be a prince you had to be the oldest descendant of Rurik, also was a confusing system of rotating succession by city that led to a breakdown in cooperation to the point that they couldn’t mount a coordinated response to Mongol invasion. not a good succession process, sons, uncles and fathers would fight against each other for control of cities 1100’s ­ Trade routes fall, trade is shifted not through Russia anymore, shifts West Mongols­ dominated Russia for 2 and ½ centuries, changed steppe politics, military expansion, longest period of foreign rule in Russia, influenced and left torture, harsh judicial practices, corporal punishment, obligation on nobility, and idea of treason, never really settled in Russia because of lack of grasslands and their horses feet were destroyed by moisture, they were very greedy. Established census in order to tax the population. baskaks­ (used by the Tartar’s) ensured the payment of taxes and supervised a census, begun in 1257, to establish a systematic basis for revenue collection; also supervised the maintenance of order and ensured that the prince pushed the correct political line. Rise of Muscovite state/ Muscovy/Moscow­ Ivan “Moneybags” (first Ivan) does this
(geographical location), vast empire, lots of military security, rivers by Moscow facilitated commerce Ivan II­ gave birth to Dmitrii, not as successful with regard to territorial expansion. Gathering of the Russian Lands­ accomplished by Ivan III (The Great), turning of the tide
(expansion towards the east), he tripled the territory of his state, ended the dominance of the
Mongols over the Russians, renovated the Kremlin, and laid the foundations of the Russian state ● Ivan The Great fought a series of wars with Novgorod over Moscow's religious and political sovereignty
● Russian Land gathered by buying smaller principalities, by fighting weaker Princes, and by Ivan marrying off his daughters Ivan the Terrible­ morally unstable, Grand prince of Moscow Novgorod (Ivan the Terrible)­
Oprichnina burned and pillaged Novgorod and the surrounding villages, and the city was never to regain its former prominence, destroyed Novgorod’s
‘veche’ council (last remnants of most democratic system)

Oprichnina ­ The police force constructed out of fear by Ivan the Terrible (Ivan IV) in order to form a more autocratic government. Russia has never escaped from this autocracy. Allowed for Russian rulers to bypass normal channels and find more direct routes to assert their power. Established to assert greater control over the people,