List the 5 body conditions affected by the marathon. Also, tell whether the condition increased or decreased. Weight-decreased
Maintaining stable conditions in the body is called... Homeostasis
Body processes require what type of environment? Controlled
The body begins to use fat as fuel after what has occurred? After blood glucose & stored glycogen are used up.
Name three ways heat can be removed from the body. Radiation
Many of the body's chemical reactions cease to function when this occurs. Core body temp goes too high.
What do muscles produce as a result of contraction? Heat
What gas is needed to keep the muscles working? Oxygen
In gas exchange, what goes in? What comes out? Oxygen goes in.
Carbon Dioxide comes out.
Where does gas exchange take place in the body? The lungs.
Early in a race would you expect the blood glucose to raise or drop? Drop.
Adrenaline stimulates the liver to break down glycogen into... Glucose.
What causes increased heart and breathing rates before a race? Release of adrenaline
Most of the weight lost during a marathon is in what form? Sweat (fluid water)
Give an example of negative feedback. Hormone from the brain causing the kidneys to reduce urine production.
Name the two types of particles in the nucleus of an atom. Proton
Name the particle found outside the nucleus of an atom. Electron
Define element. Something made up of only one type of atom.
The number of ________ in the nucleus of an atom determine what the atom is. Protons
What element has 6 protons Carbon
What is the atomic number of Carbon 6
Name the six elements most important to biomolecules. CHOPNS
What is the charge of a proton? Positive
What is the charge of an electron? Negative
What is the charge of a neutron? Neutral
The atomic mass of an element is made up of what two types of particles? Protons & Neutrons
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have different numbers of __________. Neutrons
________=_________ in an atom. Electrons; Neutrons
Define energy levels as it pertains to an atom. The area in which electrons move around the nucleus.
Do electrons that are closer to the nucleus have more or less energy? Less.
How many electrons can fit into each of the three energy levels? Level 1=2
The name for atoms that have filled or satisfied outer energy levels. Inert or rare gases.
What type of bonds do atoms without satisfied outer energy levels tend to form? Molecular.
The name for a charged atom. Ion
Oppositely charged ions are attracted to each other and form what type of bond? Ionic
Covalent bonds are formed between two atoms that share what? Electrons
Three shared pairs of electrons is called a _______ covalent bond. Triple
What is the process of atoms sharing or transferring electrons with one another? Chemical reactions.
Chemical equations must be _________. Balanced
What is the most abundant molecule in living things? Water
Water covers what ratio of the Earth? 3/4
What two ions can water molecules disassociate into? Hydrogen and Hydroxide
This is used to measure how acidic or basic a solution is and is calibrated from 1-14. The pH scale
In what type of solution are the Hydrogen and Hydroxide ions equal? A neutral solution
Which type of solutions a a pH LOWER than 7? Acidic
A basic solution has a pH ________ than 7. Higher
The pH of blood is between _____ & ______. 7.2; 7.4
What atom is essential to biological chemicals? Carbon
What type of bond does carbon form with itself and other elements? Covalent
This is the type of chemistry devoted to the study of carbon and its compounds. Organic