The economic system of the United States is sculpted after the concept of capitalism. Capitalism supports free enterprise - private business operating without government regulation. The United States does standardize private businesses. Sometimes special circumstances arise which threaten to deteriorate the overall economic solidity of the country. In order to adequately manage these situations, the United States government has passed many laws permitting certain groups the ability to bring attention to as well as stop the threat. This is particularly important in terms of its effects on individuals. It defends the freedoms of individuals, preserves order and stability, and attempts to endorse equality. One example of the ability of the United States government to interfere with the natural progression of the American capitalist society, is the presence of antitrust laws. These laws regulate certain engagements of individuals, trusts, corps, and combinations of corps in an effort to thwart or forcibly end a monopoly. Since 1989, Microsoft has been repetitively accused of violating antitrust laws. More than once, these allegations have led to an antitrust case being filed against Microsoft as a company. These antitrust laws and law suits are tremendously significant. Despite the outcomes of the cases, antitrust laws served their purpose- to uphold the balance of the concepts of freedom, order, and equality. Freedom is one of the three key theories that government must pursue for its citizens. Freedom has two core circumstances in which it is used; which are freedom of, and freedom from. Freedom of is the absence of constraints on behavior; it means freedom to do something. These types of freedoms ensure individuals specific liberties such as freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and all other civil rights. These individual freedoms are extremely vital in a democracy. Freedom from . . . advocates invulnerability from fear and want. Freedom from is also vital in a democracy. It guarantees that certain things cannot be done to anyone under these laws. This is imperative because it places limits on the authorities of the government. Another responsibility that government must pursue is maintaining order. Order is the rule of law to preserve life and protect property. Maintaining order is the oldest purpose of government. There is also a third aspect associated with the idea of order. This is a belief in maintaining traditional patterns of social relationships. Both the preservation of life and the protection of property are pursued in similar ways. The most common ways in which the government attempts to maintain order are through government legislation, interpretation of the law, and enforcement of the law. The final aspect of order is maintaining traditional patterns of social behavior, also called social order. "Social order refers to established patterns of authority in society and to traditional modes of behavior." Social order is, therefore, what society feels is right. For this reason, social order is largely maintained by the society in question along with the government. As the values, beliefs, ideas, etc. of a society gradually change over time, the social order will change as well. Even though the social order is continuously changing, it is not upset. The norms of the society change, but the change is gradual. The social order is upset when there is a sudden change in some value, belief, idea, etc. of a large number of the people within a society that is in contrast with the norm of the society and causes the whole society to forget the original social order in order to argue and put an end to the new "untraditional" values, beliefs, ideas, etc. that oppose the old societal norm. Order is a concept that applies to all systems. Most of these systems use a completely unique way of maintaining order. Similarly, different areas that humans try to maintain order within may have other natural ways to
States Laws Are They Effective?
The United States has several laws that are intended to further fair, balanced, and competitive business practices. These laws are typically effective as control measures to ensure fair business practices are followed by all. All U.S. law roots come from the Constitution and the Bill of Rights however these laws are ever-changing because of evolving social standards. (Courtland, Bovee and Thill, 2013, p. A-1)
The United States has various laws for…
The United States has many laws in place in order to keep business practices fair, balanced and competitive. The roles that these laws play are kept in place, so that consumers have the benefit of competitive prices, while still getting high quality goods and services. Competition can help stimulate the economy, “Competition has a positive impact, not only on the wellbeing of consumers, but also on a country's economy as a whole. Competition…
Antitrust Practice and Market Power
DeVry University: ECON 312
Antitrust is a law that prevents anticompetitive behavior between firms. November of 1999, Microsoft was investigated for conducting antitrust behavior. Microsoft tried to form a monopoly in which they would gain control over the software industry. Their strategy was to implement their current market power and use their profits to shut down any other company that showed or could show a potential…
January 24, 2015
The purpose of this paper is to examine the recent antitrust investigations of the super search engine Google. Competition law seeks to maintain market competition by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies (Taylor, 2006). Competition law is known as antitrust in the United States but is referred to by other terms such as anti-monopoly. It is important to sustain antitrust laws to promote and maintain fair competition in markets and to decrease barriers to entry…
with Holcim, Lafarge faces the violation of economics policy, especially antitrust regulation and need to disposal its assets (Shotter, Stothard and Hammond 2014). Competition optimizes the allocation of resources and encourages better response to customer needs (Hunt and Morgan 1995). Oligopoly companies can charge price over its marginal cost, which create deadweight loss and reduce economic welfare due to the inefficient use of resources (Samuelson and Marks 2012). The government intervenes to reduce…
Actions that are illegal are those that have been prohibited under law. In most cases these actions do not need any proof on the surrounding circumstance. This means committing the act makes one liable for the offense. According to American Bar Association (2007), an act is per se illegal if it is supported by three things namely, statute, the constitution and case law.
The arrangement made by the owner PHOs, member hospitals and member physicians cancelling contracts…
The U.S. government charged that Microsoft had violated antitrust law. Microsoft disagreed. Do you agree with the U.S. government, or with Microsoft? In answering this question, you may wish to address two issues. Was Microsoft a monopoly? Did it use its monopoly to compete unfairly against other companies?
Commencing in 1990, Microsoft was investigated and then charged with violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act which governs United States businesses. The company was determined to be a monopoly…
Antitrust Practices and Market Power
Kimberly L. Luce
The company I have chosen is Comcast. They offer cable, internet, and video-on-demand. The Federal government decided to investigate cable companies for trying to manipulate the consumer away from services provided by other competitors like Netflix and Hulu.
Comcast was found to be in violation of the Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvement Act (HSR Act) in connection…
White Collar Crime: Embezzlement and Price Fixing
White Collar Crime Fall 2012
November 19th 2012
This paper will discuss White Collar crime and the crime of price fixing, antitrust, and embezzlement. There are many different types of white collar crime. White Collar crime is a crime that is not too often viewed as harmful. A White Collar crime is an illegal act committed for monetary gain. The Federal Bureau of Investigation has opted to approach white-collar crime…
making him a model by which all future presidents would be measured”(524). He felt that the government should take control when states show incompetence in dealing with problems. Roosevelt saw the presidency as a “bully pulpit.” He believed he could use the media to persuade the public, rather than going to congress.
“By 1900, trusts-legal bodies created to hold stock in many companies-controlled about four-fifths of the industries in the United States”(525). Some trusts used unfair business practices…