Essay 1: The author of this particular article is James Madison, and is titled “The Utility of the Union as a Safeguard Against Domestic Faction and Insurrection” (1787). This article argues that a union can be used as a way of preventing factions and rebellions as opposed to simply controlling their effects. It also argues that trying to control someone’s ideals is difficult, and proposes that we should simply give everyone a common cause as to prevent factions and insurrections from emerging. Madison goes on to support his claims in many ways, using rhetorical devices such as asyndetons and analogies. The second paragraph actually consists of an asyndeton, which is used to explain what a faction is and what causes it to emerge. The fifth paragraph uses a well constructed analogy to describe the effects of liberty on insurrections. He says “Liberty is to faction what air is to fire, an ailment without which it instantly expires.” He uses this to say that liberty is the cause of the fire, and readily admits that removing liberty removes the fire, but also goes on to say that removing liberty is not only impractical but also unfair to the people. The main purpose of this piece is to address Madison’s concerns about rebellions and counter factions emerging in America, and possible ways to address them beforehand. His main motives for writing this piece mostly stem from the purpose of the actual article: he felt that it was necessary to have a counter measure for these types of insurrections, especially America’s democratic system lends itself to a large amount of freedom of the people, which he notes is the main fuel to the fire of insurrection. His intended audience is stated before the actual article in bold print: “To the people of the State of New York”. The way he speaks to the audience is rather indirect and does not actually specify any problems with New York itself; rather it talks about general freedoms and their consequences as a whole.
Essay 2: This article is written by James Madison, and it is titled “The Structure of the Government Must Furnish the Proper Checks and Balances Between the Different Departments” (1788). This article proposes system which he calls “checks and balances” which is used to balance all the powers in government and prevent giving any particular sector enough power to dominate the rest. The argument is developed through a series paragraphs which argue his point mainly through logic and reasoning. He also briefly uses a metaphor to supplement his argument, using it to say that if man were an angel government wouldn’t be necessary. He uses logic mainly as a way to explain why it is necessary to have a checks and balances, taking into account man’s nature to seek power and exploit it. He also highlights the need to guard society from such totalitarian governances. The main purpose for Madison’s article, again, is as a counter measure to possible instabilities caused by democracy and the freedoms it entails. It is also a proposed safeguard against corruption and totalitarian government, both of which are at ends with democracy. His personal reasons most likely reflect the reasons stated in his argument: he fears instability in this new government and is proposing measures to prevent it. His audience, yet again, is stated at the