The Various Species of Chimpanzees in Africa and their Fate Essay

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The Various Species of Chimpanzees in Africa and their Fate
Chimpanzees are a species of apes that are found in a variety of different habitats in Western, Central and Eastern Africa. Their body composition is 99% similar to human beings. They are closer to human beings than they are to other primates. Like human beings, chimpanzees are distinguishable by their facial appearance, body and behavior. They are thought to be the most intelligent animals on the planet after human beings. In addition, they are not only known to show emotion but they are also great problem-solvers and are even known to not just use, but also make tools to help them to survive more productively in their surroundings.
Chimpanzees fall into the Kingdom Animalia, Phylum Chordata, Subphylum Vertebrata, Class Mammalia (warm blooded animals with hair and mammary glands), Order Primates (11 families included such as lemurs and monkeys), Family Pongidae (which are the great apes, including chimpanzees, gorillas, bonobos, and orangutans), Genus Pan (chimpanzees and bonobos), and Species Pan troglodytes.
Chimpanzees originate in 21 countries in Africa. It is believed that they used to be found in 25 countries and it is estimated that within 20 years, 10 countries will have lost all their chimpanzees. There are only two major clades of chimpanzees: Pan troglodytes ellioti in West Africa and Pan troglodytes troglodytes in Central and East Africa. There are also four subspecies commonly recognized: the West African Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes verus; the Nigeria-Cameroon Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes ellioti; the Central Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes troglodytes; and the Eastern Chimpanzee Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii. Chimpanzees are omnivorous, and their diet is highly variable according to individual populations and seasons. Fruit comprises about half the diet, but leaves, bark, and stems are also important. Chimpanzees periodically organize hunts to catch monkeys or small antelopes.
Pan troglodytes ellioti (Nigeria Cameroon chimpanzee) is one of four recognized subspecies of the common (or robust) chimpanzee. As the name suggests, this subspecies is only found in Nigeria and Cameroon with its range extending through forested habitats north of the Sanaga River in Cameroon, the eastern edge of Nigeria, and in forest fragments South Western Nigeria and the Nigeria Delta. These chimpanzees are all black but are born with pale faces and a white tail tuft, both of which darken with age. They have prominent ears and both males and females have white beards. The male Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzees can weigh as much as 154 pounds with a body length of up to 3 feet and a height of 5 feet. Females are considerably smaller. The Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee is recognized as the most threatened and least distributed of all the common chimpanzee subspecies, and without a dramatic change to human behavior in the area, there is a likelihood of extinction in the coming decades. Their average lifespan is 40-45 years.
The Eastern chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) is a subspecies of the common chimpanzee. It is found in the Central African Republic, the Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania. The adult chimpanzees weigh between 88 and 143 pounds. Males can measure up to 5.2 feet and females up to 4.3feet in height. Although they are lighter than humans, they have a jerk five to six times stronger. This is because the muscles of the common chimpanzee are far more effective than those of humans. This chimpanzee’s body is covered with coarse dark brown hair, except for the face, fingers, toes, and palms of the hands and soles of the feet. Both of its thumbs and its big toes are opposable, allowing a precision grip.
The Central chimpanzee or Tschego (Pan troglodytes troglodytes) is a subspecies of the common chimpanzee (one of the closest living relatives to humans, along with the bonobo). It occurs mainly in Gabon, Cameroon, and