The World Between The Wars: Revolutions, Depression, And Authoritarian Response

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CHAPTER 29 ­ The World between the Wars: Revolutions,
Depression, and Authoritarian Response Thesis: The interwar period, the 1920s and 1930s, was influenced by the political and economic changes brought by World War I where important social and cultural developments occurred along with political uprisings of communism and liberalism in Europe, Russia, and China.

A.) Diplomatic Deafness

Relations with the West took various forms in the 1920, such as India with a new nationalist movement, and Turkish nationalists set up an effective army and negotiated with the West for recognition. I. The Disarray of Western Europe, 1918­1929

Many cultural, political, and economic alterations marked the 1920s in Europe and
Japan and with its growing power affected Europe and North America and the ultimate effects of World War I brought tremendous dislocation in Europe. B.) The Roaring Twenties

A brief period of stability emerged in the mid 1920s where artistic creativity emerged, especially including the Cubist movement, scientific advances continued, women achieved important gains as voting rights were won in several nations, and industrialization continued to advance. C.) Fascism in Italy

Italian fascists, led by Mussolini, advocated a strong corporate state with national unity replacing socialism and capitalism while the outcome of World War I for Italy gave fascists an opportunity to gain power from a weak political system, but Mussolini formed a government in 1922 and soon eliminated opposition. D.) The New Nations of East Central Europe

The new nations looked to Western Europe for political inspiration, but they were weakened by grievances with the borders awarded by the World War I peace treaties and by interstate, and they remained predominantly agricultural and resisted land reform, but export economies were hit by the

II. Industrial Societies Outside Europe
∙ Canada and Australia continued political consolidation, while the United States developed with an economic boom, and Japan experienced rapid industrial growth, but domestic politics were unsettled.

A.) The Rise of the American Colossus

The United States developed quickly in the 1920s with innovations increasing production,
American culture was sent abroad, but isolation became popular, and the Red Scare increased a desire to withdraw from participation in world affairs. B.) Japan and Its Empire

Japan’s government resembled a parliamentary government with new cultural developments, and expanding economy with steadily agricultural productivity, and a brief commitment to liberal democracy. C.) A Balance Sheet

Representative forms of government were affirmed in Germany, Canada, Japan, and other countries, and economic and social changes were accompanied by democracy challenged in Italy and central Europe while the American and Japanese economic power threatened Western Europe. III. Revolution: The First Waves

Revolutions and anticolonial movements posed a direct challenge to more established powers, and revolutions suggested alternatives were advanced to Western political, economic, and social forms. A.) Mexico’s Upheaval

A rebellion followed after a rigged election while Zapata wanted sweeping land reforms and revolted, and the Mexican revolution ended in 1920 with a new constitution where Obregon was the first president to rebuild from the serious losses of the civil war. B.) Culture and Politics in Postrevolutionary Mexico

Nationalism and the concern for Indian culture stimulated many of the reforms while education stressed Mexico’s Indian heritage and denounced Western capitalism, and the revolutionary leadership established a one­party political system but water new political parties challenged a weakened PRI.