Global village- the world has become like a small community as a result of the spread of electronic communication.
Public Sphere- Means by which people communicate in a open society place for public debate and discussion
Mass media manipulates and controls the public sphere, turning it into a sham.
Hyper reality- as a result of the spread of electronic communication there is no longer a separate “reality” to which to programs and other cultural products refer instead what we take to be.
Reality- is structured by such communication itself
Media and Modern society- Thompson argues that mass media have created new form of social interactive mass media allows much more to continue the public domain.
Globalization and media imperialism- Developing countries are subject to the cultural images of larger cultures.
Theories of Religion
Marx: Religion and Inequality
Religion represents human self animation
“opium of the people”
Religious beliefs can provide justifications for those in power
Durkheim: Religion and functionalism
Defined religion in terms of sacred versus the profane.
Religion serves cohesive functions, especially ensuring that people meet regularly to affirm common beliefs and values.
Religiosity- is the regular practice of religious beliefs, measured by church attendance
Two groups have dramatically increased in size in recent decades
Fundamentalists: those who literally interpret texts and want to return to a time of a greater religious party.
Unchurched: those who consider themselves spiritual but not religious and who often adopt aspects of various religious traditions
Religion (sociological)- Includes any institutionalized system of shared:
Beliefs( Propostitons and ideas held on the basis of Faity) and Rituals (practices based on those beliefs) that identify a relationship between sacred and the profane.
Theories of Politics & Government
Government- The formal, organized agency that exercises power and control in modern society, especially through the creation and enforcement of laws.
Politics- The methods and tactics of managing a political entity such as a nation or state, as well as to the administration and control of it’s internal and external affairs.
Power- is the ability to impose one’s will on others
Authority- is the legitimate, non-coercive(non force) exercise of power.
Types of Political Systems
Authoritarism- is a system of government by and for a small number of elites that does not include representation of ordinary citizens
Dictatorship- usually a dictator does not gain power by being elected or through succession buy seizes power and becomes an absolutist ruler.
Totalitarianism- is the most extreme and modern form of authoritarianism in which the government seeks to control every aspects of citizen’s lives.
Monarchy- is the government by a king or queen, with succession of rulers kept within the family.
Absolute Monarchies- typically have complete authority over their subjects.
Constitutional Monarchs- are royal figures whose powers are defined by a political charter and limited by a parliament or other governing body
Democracy- Is a political system in which all citizens have the right to participate
Power elite & Pluralism
Pluralism- is a system of political power in which a wide variety of individuals and groups have equal access to resources and the mechanisms of power.
Power elite- is a termed coined by C. Wright Mills for a relatively small number of people who control the economic, political, and military institutions of a society
Political Party- an organization oriented toward achieving legitimate control of government through an electoral process
Interest Group- any organization that attempts to persuade eleceted officials to consider its aim when deciding legislation.
Work & Economic Life
What is work?
Work- Is the carrying out of tasks that involve physical and mental effort.
Objective is the production of goods