Learning and Cognitive Theories Learning and Cognitive Theories Childhood development, there are many different theories in how this is formed. The basis in which the development is geared off of is the ability for people to resolve the conflicts they face at different ages. In each theory it is important to keep in mind that there are always going to be stages in which the person can build upon to grow or fall back on. The four main theorists would be Freud, Erickson, Piaget, and Vygotsky. In the following writing I will compare and contrast these very names and their theories. Piaget proposes that a childs intellect progresses through four stages. He also claims that learning is not possible until the learner is developmental enough to receive the information and gain skills from that information. Piagets stage that runs from birth to two years is called sensorimotor, this is when the formation of object performance happens as well as the progression from reflexive behavior to goal directed behavior is happening. His stage from two to seven years is referred to as the preoperational stage, this is when the ability to use symbols as representational tools comes into play. From there we have the third stage, concrete operational which runs from seven to eleven years. This stage shows grasp improvement on logical thinking and problem solving through abstract thinking. Fourth comes formal operational which runs from eleven to adulthood, this stage is when your thinking process opens completely and you can solve issues through experimentation. Vygotsky on the other hand proposed that cognitive development is strongly linked to the input of others. He often discusses the nature versus nurture philosophy. If you think about it from Vygotskys outlook all aspects of human behavior are affected by nature and nurture both, when operating together. Nature meant that all the evolutionary factors that have shaped your genetics that you inherited from your parents and ancestors. Nurture is linked to all the things that have influenced you since you have begun to develop. Nature determines the range of our human potential whereas nurture affects the ways that our human potential is being helped or hindered by good or bad things in the environment. Both Piaget and Vygotsky do believe that nature play a distinctive role upon what we learn. Both theorists state that our exposure to things is what forms us as a person. They also both agree that we go from simple to complex information and skills as our age progresses. A good example of this learning progression is learning letter sounds before learning to read. Piaget and Vygotsky also share the mindset that some people may never reach certain stages due to their brain not being capable. Freuds theory is broken down into six stages of psychosexual development. The oral stage runs from birth to 1 year, in this stage a childs primary source of pleasure is through the mouth, via sucking, eating and tasting. Then comes the anal stage which spans from one to three years. In this stage children gain a sense of mastery and competence by controlling bladder and bowel movements. Three to six years marks the phallic stage, this is when the libidos energy is focused on the genitals. Children begin to identify with their same-sex parent. Latent period runs from seven to eleven and marks when the libidos energy is suppressed and children are focused on other activities such as friends, hobbies and schoolwork. With adolescence comes the exploration of romantic relationships. Last but not least adulthood, according to Freud, the genital stage lasts throughout adulthood. Through Freud it is believed the goal is to develop a balance between all areas of life to grow as much as possible as a person. Ericksons stages of psychosocial development is broken into six areas just as Freuds. From birth to one year is when children learn to trust or mistrust a
To understand psychoanalytic theorist believe that behavior is just a characteristic and the inner workings of the mind and the meaning of the behavior must be analyzed. Freud and Erikson though both psychoanalytical theorists, had different ideas of development. Freud believed there were five stages of psychosexual development while Erikson believed there were eight stages of development that unfolds throughout one’s lifetime.…
Discuss Factors and Theories that Influence Children and Young People’s Development and How these Influence Current Practice.
Within this essay I am going to discuss and explain the differences between Personal factor and External factor. As well as discussing and conversing the different factors I am also going to talk about the influence of child development within three theorists, these three theorists are Maria Montessori, Lev Yvgotsky and Jean Piaget.…
2.3 Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.
Theories of development including:
• Cognitive (e.g. Piaget)
• Psychoanalytic (e.g. Freud)
• Humanist (e.g. Maslow)
• Social Learning (e.g. Bandura)
• Operant conditioning (e.g. Skinner)
• Behaviourist (e.g. Watson)
The first theorist is Piaget his theory was cognitive/constructive. Piaget believed that the way children think and learn is governed by their age and stage of development.…
Object relations theorists investigate the early formulation and differentiation of psychological structure and how these inner structures are manifested in interpersonal situations
5. Theorists focus on relationships of early life that leave lasting impression within the psyche of the individual.
The use of development charts is only the beginning of the process of understanding a child. Now look at what each theorist has to say about child development.
Theories and approaches
You are ready to make theoretical links when you have found and discussed appropriate child development milestones.
The following pages summarise the main theories of a number of child development theorists.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Piaget is a constructivist.…
Last, queer theorists suspect the norms that everyone should obey. As queer theory develops out of the postmodernism, queers question the truth and norms. Just as Halperin (1995) argued, almost all of the opinions that queer theorists hold are opposite to the dominant, legal and normal ones. Rumens and Kelemen (2008) also concluded that queer theory is actually about suspecting what is regarded as ‘normal’.…
The environment we are brought up in and the experiences we have, can influence our health which contributes to physical development. An example of how nature and nurture affect our physical development is; we many carry genes that increase our risk of developing type 2 diabetes, but if we eat a healthy diet and get sufficient exercise, we might not develop the disease.…
During my study, I came up with Development Milestones for a 4 year. CDC website
played an essential role in my study. The website provided me with the data that was
important in my study. My study was to observe McDonald’s interaction and reaction
with me. I observed his behavior as well as his development growth. Language, social,
cognitive, and physical skills were my key areas of study in the 4 year McDonald.…