Learning and Cognitive Theories Learning and Cognitive Theories Childhood development, there are many different theories in how this is formed. The basis in which the development is geared off of is the ability for people to resolve the conflicts they face at different ages. In each theory it is important to keep in mind that there are always going to be stages in which the person can build upon to grow or fall back on. The four main theorists would be Freud, Erickson, Piaget, and Vygotsky. In the following writing I will compare and contrast these very names and their theories. Piaget proposes that a childs intellect progresses through four stages. He also claims that learning is not possible until the learner is developmental enough to receive the information and gain skills from that information. Piagets stage that runs from birth to two years is called sensorimotor, this is when the formation of object performance happens as well as the progression from reflexive behavior to goal directed behavior is happening. His stage from two to seven years is referred to as the preoperational stage, this is when the ability to use symbols as representational tools comes into play. From there we have the third stage, concrete operational which runs from seven to eleven years. This stage shows grasp improvement on logical thinking and problem solving through abstract thinking. Fourth comes formal operational which runs from eleven to adulthood, this stage is when your thinking process opens completely and you can solve issues through experimentation. Vygotsky on the other hand proposed that cognitive development is strongly linked to the input of others. He often discusses the nature versus nurture philosophy. If you think about it from Vygotskys outlook all aspects of human behavior are affected by nature and nurture both, when operating together. Nature meant that all the evolutionary factors that have shaped your genetics that you inherited from your parents and ancestors. Nurture is linked to all the things that have influenced you since you have begun to develop. Nature determines the range of our human potential whereas nurture affects the ways that our human potential is being helped or hindered by good or bad things in the environment. Both Piaget and Vygotsky do believe that nature play a distinctive role upon what we learn. Both theorists state that our exposure to things is what forms us as a person. They also both agree that we go from simple to complex information and skills as our age progresses. A good example of this learning progression is learning letter sounds before learning to read. Piaget and Vygotsky also share the mindset that some people may never reach certain stages due to their brain not being capable. Freuds theory is broken down into six stages of psychosexual development. The oral stage runs from birth to 1 year, in this stage a childs primary source of pleasure is through the mouth, via sucking, eating and tasting. Then comes the anal stage which spans from one to three years. In this stage children gain a sense of mastery and competence by controlling bladder and bowel movements. Three to six years marks the phallic stage, this is when the libidos energy is focused on the genitals. Children begin to identify with their same-sex parent. Latent period runs from seven to eleven and marks when the libidos energy is suppressed and children are focused on other activities such as friends, hobbies and schoolwork. With adolescence comes the exploration of romantic relationships. Last but not least adulthood, according to Freud, the genital stage lasts throughout adulthood. Through Freud it is believed the goal is to develop a balance between all areas of life to grow as much as possible as a person. Ericksons stages of psychosocial development is broken into six areas just as Freuds. From birth to one year is when children learn to trust or mistrust a
Discussing the Main Theories of Human Development
By: Lisa Meadows
Southside Virginia Community College
In this essay I will discuss the five major theories of human development over one’s life span. Although these are just theories this small amount of information on such a large topic is enough to make you think about how you developed to be the person you are or what will have an effect on making you the person you…
asserts that development is dependent on biological programming or genetic make-up that an offspring inherits from its parents at conception. On the other hand nurture asserts that development is dependent on exposure to a range of biological environment.
Nature and nurture is argued differently throughout different theorist, there are some theorists that argue that people are born to be the way they are and it is all down to genetics and nothing else. However there are other theorists that believe…
Influence Children and Young People’s Development and How these Influence Current Practice.
Within this essay I am going to discuss and explain the differences between Personal factor and External factor. As well as discussing and conversing the different factors I am also going to talk about the influence of child development within three theorists, these three theorists are Maria Montessori, Lev Yvgotsky and Jean Piaget. Once I have explained each theorist and their theory, I will then explain…
childhood learning environment and how I may relate them to my own developing education philosophy. Each theory will be discussed with a focus on one or two particular theorist. For Conforming I will look at theorists from both the nature and nurture perspective, Gesell and Skinner. The Reforming…
Explain how theories of development and frameworks to support development influence current practice.
Theories of development including:
• Cognitive (e.g. Piaget)
• Psychoanalytic (e.g. Freud)
• Humanist (e.g. Maslow)
• Social Learning (e.g. Bandura)
• Operant conditioning (e.g. Skinner)
• Behaviourist (e.g. Watson)
The first theorist is Piaget his theory was cognitive/constructive. Piaget believed that the way children think and learn is governed by their age and stage of development. He believed that…
combination with relations, object refers to interpersonal relations and suggests inner residues of past relations shaping present relations
4. Object relations theorists investigate the early formulation and differentiation of psychological structure and how these inner structures are manifested in interpersonal situations
5. Theorists focus on relationships of early life that leave lasting impression within the psyche of the individual.
The use of development charts is only the beginning of the process of understanding a child. Now look at what each theorist has to say about child development.
Theories and approaches
You are ready to make theoretical links when you have found and discussed appropriate child development milestones.
The following pages summarise the main theories of a number of child development theorists.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Piaget is a constructivist. Constructivists think that children learn…
queer theory has been used to study the relations between the sexuality, gender and workplace. On the other hand, by utilizing denaturalized, deconstructive and performative methods to queer the presumptions of the taken-for-granted norms, queer theorists question and disprove the traditions which people cherish (Seidman,1995).
The purpose of this review is to narrate and provide the details of published academic studies about the…
Human Growth, Development and Behavior
January 2, 2015
Recently, I visited my friend’s family with the intention of carrying out my nursing
practice on a 4 year McDonald. I went with my nursing facilities in order to achieve my
nursing study on McDonald. First, I weighed the mass and the height of the 4 year child.
The results showed that McDonalds weighs 45 Ibs and 42 inches tall. In order to come
up with a convincing statistic, I used a Journey Across the Lifespan technique to…
The debate over Nature and Nurture has been going on for years and it’s still unresolved. Many theorist believe what we have inherited and our genes, makes us the person we are and how we develop throughout our lives. Others believe it is the way we are brought up and our experiences, that makes us who we are and how we develop. Nature is the debate that we are born the way we are and everything is inherited from our parents through our genes, whereas nurture is the environment and upbringing that…