Learning and Cognitive Theories Learning and Cognitive Theories Childhood development, there are many different theories in how this is formed. The basis in which the development is geared off of is the ability for people to resolve the conflicts they face at different ages. In each theory it is important to keep in mind that there are always going to be stages in which the person can build upon to grow or fall back on. The four main theorists would be Freud, Erickson, Piaget, and Vygotsky. In the following writing I will compare and contrast these very names and their theories. Piaget proposes that a childs intellect progresses through four stages. He also claims that learning is not possible until the learner is developmental enough to receive the information and gain skills from that information. Piagets stage that runs from birth to two years is called sensorimotor, this is when the formation of object performance happens as well as the progression from reflexive behavior to goal directed behavior is happening. His stage from two to seven years is referred to as the preoperational stage, this is when the ability to use symbols as representational tools comes into play. From there we have the third stage, concrete operational which runs from seven to eleven years. This stage shows grasp improvement on logical thinking and problem solving through abstract thinking. Fourth comes formal operational which runs from eleven to adulthood, this stage is when your thinking process opens completely and you can solve issues through experimentation. Vygotsky on the other hand proposed that cognitive development is strongly linked to the input of others. He often discusses the nature versus nurture philosophy. If you think about it from Vygotskys outlook all aspects of human behavior are affected by nature and nurture both, when operating together. Nature meant that all the evolutionary factors that have shaped your genetics that you inherited from your parents and ancestors. Nurture is linked to all the things that have influenced you since you have begun to develop. Nature determines the range of our human potential whereas nurture affects the ways that our human potential is being helped or hindered by good or bad things in the environment. Both Piaget and Vygotsky do believe that nature play a distinctive role upon what we learn. Both theorists state that our exposure to things is what forms us as a person. They also both agree that we go from simple to complex information and skills as our age progresses. A good example of this learning progression is learning letter sounds before learning to read. Piaget and Vygotsky also share the mindset that some people may never reach certain stages due to their brain not being capable. Freuds theory is broken down into six stages of psychosexual development. The oral stage runs from birth to 1 year, in this stage a childs primary source of pleasure is through the mouth, via sucking, eating and tasting. Then comes the anal stage which spans from one to three years. In this stage children gain a sense of mastery and competence by controlling bladder and bowel movements. Three to six years marks the phallic stage, this is when the libidos energy is focused on the genitals. Children begin to identify with their same-sex parent. Latent period runs from seven to eleven and marks when the libidos energy is suppressed and children are focused on other activities such as friends, hobbies and schoolwork. With adolescence comes the exploration of romantic relationships. Last but not least adulthood, according to Freud, the genital stage lasts throughout adulthood. Through Freud it is believed the goal is to develop a balance between all areas of life to grow as much as possible as a person. Ericksons stages of psychosocial development is broken into six areas just as Freuds. From birth to one year is when children learn to trust or mistrust a…
Karl Marx, Max Weber and Emile Durkheim are all considered to be the “Founding Fathers” of Sociology because they have been the greatest social thinkers and theorists who have paved the way of standards in our societies. From religion to law to why we do the things we do as a majority are all topics that these three theorists have discussed so that we may be able to apply this to the world we live in today.
Marx is the one theorist that when I first started to read his theory…
different situations. Integrative potential exists when the nature of a problem permits solutions which benefit both parties, or at least when the gains of one party do not represent equal sacrifices by the other. This is closely related to what game theorists call the varying-sum game.
-Distributive Bargaining: It is a hypothetical construct referring to the complex system of one party's goals when they are in basic conflict with those of the other party. It is type of activity most familiar to students…
ABACUS, Vol. 23, No. I, 1987
M. J. R. GAFFIKIN
The Methodology of Early Accounting Theorists
If, as Watts and Zimmerman (1986) suggest, a utiique methodological
foundation is the hallmark of a mature discipline, accounting fails to qualify.
In this article, methodological arguments of accounting theorists in the first
part of this century are examined. 'Pattern Modeling' is suggested as a basis
for methodological appraisal. The conclusion reached is that the major
theoretical works in…
Weekly Blog 6
Chapter six of Rhetorical Theory examines rhetoric as it relates to dramatism. The chapter opens by providing a real world example of a dramatistic theory, followed by some of the beliefs by theorist Kenneth Burke. According to Burke, “Dramatiscm is a method of analysis and a corresponding critique of terminology designed to show that the most direct route to the study of human relations and human motives is via a methodical inquiry into cycles or clusters of terms…
subcultures identified reaction formation as a cause of delinquency and criminal behavior in youth gangs. Conflict theories are based on the assumption that social inequality is the cause of crime through the disparity of power in society. Some conflict theorists believe that a wealthy class of people with power uses the criminal justice system to oppress the poor and maintain their own positions. Also, feminist theories focus on the role of gender inequality in criminal behavior.
Another side for understanding…
The use of development charts is only the beginning of the process of understanding a child. Now look at what each theorist has to say about child development.
Theories and approaches
You are ready to make theoretical links when you have found and discussed appropriate child development milestones.
The following pages summarise the main theories of a number of child development theorists.
Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
Piaget is a constructivist. Constructivists think that children learn…
address the questions relating to morality set out by many individuals. Both ethical theorists’ Karl Marx and Kant focus on the good rather then the wrong doings and believe that everyone has duties and must fulfill them. “Duty is the necessity of acting out of reverence for universal law. Moral value is essentially established by the intention of the person acting”(Ethics). In this paper both ethical theorists perspectives and what their theory believes in will be discussed and how both Karl Marx…
Between Democracy And Development?
The exact nature of the relationship between democracy and development is complex and has been much debated. The wave of democracy that swept across sub-Saharan Africa in the early 1990s was based on the belief of IFIs and western governments that democracy is a prior or parallel condition of development and not an outcome of it. This is a direct contradiction of the view held by modernisation theorists that economic and social development precede democracy (Leftwich…
Herzberg also developed the concept that there are two distinct human needs:
Physiological needs: avoiding unpleasantness or discomfort and may be fulfilled via money to buy food and shelter etc.
Psychological needs: the need for personal development fulfilled by activities which cause one to grow.
He identified this as the Adam and Abraham Concept where Adam is animal and wants to avoid pain or discomfort, but Abraham is human and needs to go beyond the physical requirements and expand psychologically…