Essay about Theory of Cognitive Development and Secondary Circular Reactions

Submitted By Poko8me
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Pages: 12

Developmental Psychology Study Guide
Exam 2:
Article I. Physical Development:
1) What are the infant states of arousal? How long do they spend in each state on average?
a) Sleep
a.i) Active Sleep- REM (50%)
a.ii) Quiet Sleep- Non-REM (30%)
b) Transitional (7%)
c) Awake
c.i) Quiet alert (7%)
c.ii) Active awake (3%)
c.iii) Fussing and Crying (3%)
2) What occurs during the alert states? When do they usually occur?
a) States of exercise. They are paying attention to the world around them. Usually occurs after eating.
3) True or False: We spend more time in REM sleep than babies do.
a) False. Babies spend more time.
4) What physical characteristics occur during Non-REM and REM sleep?
a) Non-REM: Heart rate is slow, very peaceful
b) REM: eyelids twitch, lots of movement, twitching, smile.
5) Why do babies spend so much time in REM sleep?
a) Theories: The brain is starved for stimulation. Baby needs stimulation to learn.
b) Supposedly if you give a baby, more stimulation during the day, less REM. Teach babies more things in the day, more REM.
6) What are the 3 types of infant cries?
a) Basic: Wah-ah-ah-ah
b) Pain: WAAAAH-ah-ah-ah
c) Mad: Wah! Wah! Wah!
7) What are some ways to stop/soothe a newborn that is crying?
a) Rhythmic stimulation
a.i) Rocking
a.ii) Music
a.iii) Heatbeat
a.iv) Walking on shoulder
8) What is Colic crying?
a) Occurs at 2 weeks old. Certain time of day a pattern of crying occurs. Goes away after 3 months
9) What are the significance of newborn reflexes?
a) They help prepare them to interact with the world
b) Some are important for later motor behaviors and more complex actions
c) Many disappear over time
10) What are the different types of reflexes for infants?
a) Babinski
b) Grasping
c) Moro
d) Rooting
e) Sucking
f) Stepping
g) Swimming
h) Withdrawal
11) What are SIDs?
a) Sudden infant death syndrome. Usually occurs between 2-4months old in winter months of respiratory infection. Infants die in sleep and stop breathing.
12) What are the suspected causes of SIDs?
a) Brainstem, possibly cerebellum, heart stops. Possible baby cannot control body temp. Babies sleeping on their stomach.
13) What are the risk factors of SIDs?
a) LBW
b) Male
c) History of respiratory problems
d) Poor prenatal care
e) Mother smokes
f) Mother is anemic
14) Name perceptions for newborns:
a) Smell
b) Taste
c) Touch
d) Hearing
15) Describe infant’s sense of taste and smell:
a) Baby’s sense of smell is more sensitive than adults, can sense mom. Have more taste buds and prefer more sweets before birth.
16) Describe sense of touch.
a) Occurs at birth. Girls are more sensitive because they are neurologically more mature than boys.
17) Describe hearing.
a) Babies can hear before birth. Can remember what they hear so they can learn before birth. Can recognize the mother’s voice.
18) What do babies respond to in terms of hearing?
a) Respond to loudness, pitch duration, direction, rhythm
19) True or false. Babies cannot hear quiet sounds well.
20) What is interactional synchrony?
a) Babies in sleep/wake cycle move in sync of voices
21) True or False. Babies start developing vision after birth.
22) True or False. Babies have 20/20 vision by 3 months.
a) 6 months
23) True or False. Vision is more developed than other sense.
24) What is social referencing?
a) We are unsure what is happening and we look towards others for behavior
25) What patterns do prefer? Why?
a) 3-d, curved, big, moving, more elements, more contrast, more complex
b) Prefer stimuli because their eyes are developing they need visual stimulation so they may seek out those that are visually more stimulating
26) Infants prefer ___?___ faces.
a) Attractive and symmetrical
27) How do infants scan faces?
a) One month old: start at chin end at top of head
b) 2 months old: start at top of head, end at cheek
28) What is intersensory redundancy?
a) Infants' Detection of Unimodal Properties of…