Family: Father: Peter Jefferson, 1708-175, a slave owning surveyor and farmer, whom Jefferson idolized, 1755-1815Mother: Jane Randolph, 1720-1776, the wealthy descendant of an aristocratic Virginia family, cousin of Peyton Randolph, the head of the Virginia House of Burgesses.Eldest Sister: Jane, 1740-1765Elder Sister: Mary, 1741-1804Younger Sister: Elizabeth, 1744-1774Younger Sister: Martha, 1746-1811Younger Brother: Peter, 1748-1748Younger Brother: Unnamed, 1750-1750Younger Sister: Lucy, 1752-1810Youngest Sister: Anna, 1755-1828Youngest Brother: Randolph, 1755-1815Wife: Martha Wayles Skelton, 1748-1782 (married 1772). One son, John (1767-1771), by a previous marriage to Bathurst Skelton.Eldest Daughter: Martha (known at Patsy), 1772-1836. Martha is the only one of Thomas Jefferson and Martha Skelton's six children who will survive both her parents.Daughter: Jane, 1774-1775Son: Unnamed, 1777-1777Daughter: Mary (or Maria, known as Polly), 1778-1804Daughter: Lucy Elizabeth, 1780-1781Daughter: Lucy Elizabeth, 1782-1784
After practicing as a circuit lawyer for several years, Jefferson married the 23-year-old widow Martha Wayles Skelton on January 1, 1772. Their marriage took place at the house of Martha's father and the marriage ceremony was conducted by the Reverend William Coutts, while the celebrations lasted for several days. Martha Jefferson was attractive, gracious, and popular with her friends; she was a frequent hostess for Jefferson and managed the large household. They had a happy marriage which is considered the happiest period of Jefferson's life. Martha read widely, did fine needle work and was an amateur musician. Jefferson, who was accomplished on the violin and cello, played with Martha who was an accomplished piano player. It is said that she was attracted to Thomas largely because of their mutual love of music. During the ten years of their marriage, Martha bore six children: Martha, called Patsy, (1772–1836); Jane (1774–1775); an unnamed son (1777); Mary Wayles, called Polly, (1778–1804); Lucy Elizabeth (1780–1781); and Lucy Elizabeth (1782–1785). Only Martha and Mary survived to adulthood. After her father John Wayles died in 1773, Martha and her husband Jefferson inherited his 135 slaves, 11,000 acres (4,500 ha; 17 sq mi) and the debts of his estate. These took Jefferson and other co-executors of the estate years to pay off, which contributed to his financial problems.
Later in life, Martha Jefferson suffered from diabetes and ill health, and frequent childbirth further weakened her. A few months after the birth of her last child, Martha died on September 6, 1782, at the age of 33. Jefferson was at his wife's bedside and was distraught after her death. In the following three weeks, Jefferson shut himself in his room, where he paced back and forth until he was nearly exhausted. Later he would often take long rides on secluded roads to mourn for his wife.Martha's mother had died young, and as a girl Martha lived with two stepmothers. Shortly before her death, Martha told Jefferson that she could not bear to have another mother raise her children. She pleaded with him to promise never to marry again. Jefferson gave his dying wife his solemn promise and never remarried.
Philosophy in Religion: The religious views of Thomas Jefferson diverged widely from the orthodox Christianity of his day. Throughout his life Jefferson was intensely interested in theology, religious studies, and morality. Jefferson was most closely connected with Unitarianism and the religious philosophy of Christian deism; he was sympathetic to and in general agreement with the moral precepts of Christianity. He considered the religion of Christianity as having "the most sublime and benevolent code of morals which has ever been offered to man."
Thomas Jefferson was highly critical of priests and orthodox Religion. He felt priests were usually forces for conservatism and…