(future value) is the ending amount in an account, where n is the number of periods the money is left in the account. PVAn is the value today of a future stream of equal payments (an annuity) and FVAn is the ending value of a stream of equal payments, where n is the number of payments of the annuity. PMT is equal to the dollar amount of an equal, or constant cash flow (an annuity). In the EAR equation, m is used to denote the number of compounding periods per year, while iNom is the nominal, or quoted, interest rate.

b. The opportunity cost rate (i) of an investment is the rate of return available on the best alternative investment of similar risk.

c. An annuity is a series of payments of a fixed amount for a specified number of periods. A single sum, or lump sum payment, as opposed to an annuity, consists of one payment occurring now or at some future time. A cash flow can be an inflow (a receipt) or an outflow (a deposit, a cost, or an amount paid). We distinguish between the terms cash flow and PMT. We use the term cash flow for uneven streams, while we use the term PMT for annuities, or constant payment amounts. An uneven cash flow stream is a series of cash flows in which the amount varies from one period to the next. The PV (or FVn) of an uneven payment stream is merely the sum of the present values (or future values) of each individual payment.

d. An ordinary annuity has payments occurring at the end of each period. A deferred annuity is just another name for an ordinary annuity. An annuity due has payments occurring at the beginning of each period. Most financial calculators will accommodate either type of annuity. The payment period must be equal to the compounding period.

e. A perpetuity is a series of payments of a fixed amount that last indefinitely. In other words, a perpetuity is an annuity where n equals infinity. Consol is another term for perpetuity. Consols were originally bonds issued by England in 1815 to consolidate past debt.

f. An outflow is a deposit, a cost, or an amount paid, while an inflow is a receipt. A time line is an important tool used in time value of money analysis; it is a graphical representation which is used to show the timing of cash flows. The terminal value is the future value of an uneven cash flow stream.

g. Compounding is the process of finding the future value of a single payment or series of payments. Discounting is the process of finding the present value of a single payment or series of payments; it is the reverse of compounding.

h. Annual compounding…