1954: hierarchy of needs
1946: organization development
| 1964: management grid
1960: theory x and theory y
Late 1960s: action learning
1959: hygiene and motivational factors | 1980s: total quality management
1978: performance technology
1978: excellence | | 1990: learning organization
1990s: total quality management | 1995: ethics | 2000: bpm | |
Classical perspective: 1: Scientific management: emphasizes scientifically determined jobs and management practices as the way to improve efficiency and labor productivity. 2: bureaucratic organization: one with rigid and tight procedures, policies and constraints; and the company reacts with stringent controls as well as a reluctance to adapt or change. Bureaucracies are very organized with a high degree of formality in the way it operates. Organizational charts exist for every department, and everyone understands who is in charge and what his responsibilities are for every situation. Decisions are made through an organized process, and a strict command and control structure is present at all times. 3: Administrative principles: a subfield of the classical perspective that focuses on the total organization rather than the individual worker and delineates the management functions of planning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlling.
The core ideas of scientific management were developed by Taylor in the 1880s and 1890s. Scientific management is Taylorism, It was a theory of management that analyzed and synthesized workflows. Taylor noticed the natural differences in productivity between workers, which were driven by various causes, including differences in talent, intelligence, or motivations. He was one of the first people to try to apply science to this application. He believed that decisions based upon tradition and rules of thumb should be replaced by precise procedures developed after careful study of an individual at work, including via time and motion studies, which would tend to discover or synthesize the "one best way" to do any given task. Scientific management's application was contingent on a high level of managerial control over employee work practices. The terms "scientific management" and "Taylorism" are near synonyms. Taylor is considered the father of scientific management.
Taylorism in its strict sense, became obsolete by the 1930s, and by the 1960s the term "scientific management" had fallen out of favor for describing current management theories.
The Hawthorne Studies are often identified as the single most important piece of empirical industrial social science ever undertaken”. The studies concluded that human factors were often more important than physical conditions in motivating employees to greater productivity. Hawthorne's contribution to the management theory has quite: it makes workers know yourself isn't all just mechanical extension; It caused by industry and academia to do a series of related measures and research; It for management to open a door to the social sciences; It also makes the researchers reviewed the fieldwork and the subject matter is not too close, otherwise it will influence the outcome of the experiment (called the Hawthorne Effect, Hawthorne Effect). Mayo and colleagues found that the operator to the management of social and human nature have a deeper understanding.
Organization Development (OD) is an applied discipline that supports the creation of effective and healthy organizations consisting of competent, satisfied, and productive employees. Managers should treat