There are various methods used by social scientists to conduct research. The method of research to be used is depends on a number of factors, such as the topic, resources available, the information the researcher seeks. Participant observation that Stuart Hall used, is when the researcher joins a group that is being studied. The researcher empathise with participants and not judge them. This method of research is very time consuming and only successful if the researcher is accepted by the group. Social scientists who conduct participants studies make more general statements that can be compared with results of other studies. Another method of research are the longitudinal studies used by Huesmann that involves the monitoring of research subject over a lengthy period, often longer than twenty years. Researcher collect information about the individuals or groups that are to be monitored. Try to isolate certain factors that could be significant in future behavior patterns such as family patterns, income, information on parents and school report on the perceived sociability of the boys. Depending on the number of individuals or the size of the group to be studied it can be expensive and time consuming and it takes a long time to show results. Official statistics are commonly used as starting point, however they can not identify causes of behavior(Kelly & Toynbee 2009)
In 1978 Stuart Hall et.al. published “Policing the Crisis”(Making Social Lives), in which he developed the theory that media interpretation and popularization of state definitions are the cause of anti-social behavior. Hall’s theory is rooted research based on observation that was conducted in the 1970’s when there were radical changes in prevention of crime and violence. The media greatly exaggerated this information so it appeared to breach racial equality. In this theory Hall identified street crime as a main problem. According to Hall et.al. street crime always existed and he specifically mentions ”mugging” as an example. Hall and his colleges studied the introduction of the term “mugging” in the United Kingdom. The term “mugging” for example in the United States was used in reference to street crime mainly involving black people. The British media adapted this term but also included other street crimes in the description.(Kelly & Toynbee,2009).
“Mugging” became known as a symbol of race, crime and youth. While this term originates from the United States it quickly became regarded to as anti-crime, anti-black. This interpretation in itself became a cause for moral panic. Because of the exaggerated reaction of the media, police and other control agencies, “mugging” very quickly became a threat to society. This caused Hall to believe that the rise in crime rate is to do with social control and the statistics that are provided are politically manipulated and also there is economical manipulation involved too. He also believes that the media is being used by the state. Hall and his colleges believe that social factors such as inequality or social crisis stimulates the media. Hall in his studies maintains that the media is responsible in leading the people to believe there is crises in our society(Kelly&Toynbee,2009).
In his work L. Rowell Huesmann just like Hall et.al. blame the coverage provided by the media, however Huesmann”s theory differs in the interpretation of how and when it happens. Huesmann’s theory mainly concentrate on how much the