Tobacco and NIcotine Essay

Submitted By jheis3
Words: 1259
Pages: 6

TOBACCO AND
NICOTINE

Realization












Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and premature death in the United States.
Each year there are about 443,000 deaths per year related to tobacco use.
18.1% of U.S. adults report current smoking
40-50% of people attempt to quit within a year but very few of them ever result in long-term abstinence
Nicotine is a toxic psychoactive drug.
About 60 mg of pure nicotine is enough to kill a healthy adult. Nicotine is a major ingredient in insecticides and pesticides. History










Tobacco is a plant that grows natively in
North and South America.
Tobacco began growing in the America’s around 6,000 B.C.
Native American used tobacco in religious and medical practices.
Tobacco was used to dress wounds and as a pain killer.
Tobacco helped finance the American
Revolution.

Forms of Tobacco







Originally smoked in pipes
Snuf
Chewing tobacco (Contains more nicotine than cigarettes)
Cigar
Cigarette

Smokeless Tobacco







Contains 28 carcinogens
Causes oral and pancreatic cancer
Causes Leukoplakia
Causes recession of the gums, gum disease, and tooth decay
Increases the risk of preeclampsia

Diseases











Cigarette smoking accounts for about 1/3 of all cancers.
Smoking accounts for about 90% of all lung cancer. Chronic bronchitis, and emphysema
Increases the risk of stroke, heart attack, vascular disease, and aneurysm.
Smoking is also linked to leukemia, cataracts, and pneumonia
Adults who smoke on average die 10 years earlier than nonsmokers.

Nicotine




Primary efect is to stimulate CNS receptors that are sensitive to acetylcholine, known as nicotine receptors. Activation of these receptors releases adrenaline and inhibits activity in the gastrointestinal system.

Nicotine









Nicotine acts as both a stimulant and sedative.
Immediately after nicotine exposure the user experiences a “kick” caused by the stimulation of the adrenal glands, which release epinephrine.
The rush of adrenaline causes a sudden release of glucose.
Nicotine suppresses insulin output, which makes the user slightly hyperglycemic.
Nicotine reaches the brain within ten seconds of entering the body.

Nicotine Addiction










Nicotine reaches the brain within ten seconds of entering the body.
Chew contains more nicotine than cigarettes. Increases the levels of dopamine by activating the circuitry.
An ingredient in tobacco causes a decrease in monoamineoxidase, which is responsible for breaking down dopamine.
This results in higher dopamine levels.

Reward Pathway








Upon entering the bloodstream nicotine immediately stimulates the adrenal glands to release epinephrine
(adrenaline).
Epinephrine stimulates the Central
Nervous System, which increases blood pressure, respiration, and heart rate.
Nicotine increases the levels of dopamine in the brain.
Acetaldehyde helps to enhance nicotine’s efects on the brain.



https://www.youtube.com/watch?v= coLit2bksJI Withdrawal




Nicotine withdrawal symptoms may begin within a few hours of the person’s last cigarette. Symptoms include:
Irritability
 Sleep disturbances
 Craving
 Cognitive and attention deficits
 Increased appetite


Symptoms of Smoking






Boosts mood and may relieve minor depression Increased heart rate
Increased blood pressure
Stimulates memory and alertness

Who Smokes




Each day more than 3,200 people under
18 smoke their first cigarette, and about
2,100 youths become daily smokers.
1 in 5 adults and teenagers in the U.S. smoke Quitting Smoking






Every year about one third of all smokers in the U.S. try to quit.
4 to 7 percent of people are able to quit smoking without medicines or replacement therapy’s
25% of smokers who use medication stay smoke free for over 6 months.

Benefits of Quitting
Smoking










Within 8 hours of quitting Carbon monoxide levels in the blood drop to normal. Within 24 hours chances of having a…